Psychologists
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Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists
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Overview
Psychologists study cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. They use their findings to help improve processes and behaviors.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists are expected to grow by 14%, and should have about 12,800 job openings a year.
Safety from automation
Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists are less likely to be automated than 96% of other careers.
Workforce size
Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists, with 147,500 workers, form a larger workforce than 74% of careers.
Education
About 91% of psychologists have a graduate-level education, and 100% have at least a bachelor's degree.
Education attained by psychologists
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Context: workers with graduate degrees
More psychologists have graduate degrees than 98% of other careeers.
Salaries
The median (middle) salary for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists is higher than 82% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most clinical, counseling, and school psychologists.
This job's median $77KAll jobs' median $39K$74K$38K20142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K
Context: Median Salary
Gender
Women account for 71% of psychologists -- that's a larger percentage than 84% of other jobs.
Gender of psychologists
Men
Women
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For psychologists, the median men's salary was 24% more the median woman's salary.
Race/Origin
About 13% of psychologists are minority, and 9% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of psychologists
White
Black
Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Asian
American Indian
Multiracial
Other
Context: Foreign-born workers (9%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 55% of psychologists, and 63% have company-sponsored health insurance (23% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for psychologists
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
Top college degrees
Here are the top college degrees held by the 100% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.
The downside
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Time Pressure (66%)
  • Consequence of Error (43%)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations (35%)
SOURCES:24.0 O*NET
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do psychologists earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. In particular, the ACS data is reported for the larger career group psychologists, which combines the data for 3 careers, including clinical, counseling, and school psychologists. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data is classified by SOC specialty, and excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists (BLS Salary Data)
$77K$0$50K$100K$150K
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
$77K$0$50K$100K$150K
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. Additionally, we only have ACS survey data for the larger career category and not for the specialty level. We first show the full salary distribution for all psychologists, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for psychologists compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for psychologists (ACS Salary Data)
$69K$0$50K$100K$150K
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
$69K$0$50K$100K$150K
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where clinical, counseling, and school psychologists work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Psychologists (ACS)
Private for-profit (19.8%)
Private not-for-profit (17.7%)
Local government (19.9%)
State government (14.1%)
Federal government (6.1%)
Self-employed incorporated (8.7%)
Self-employed not incorporated (13.9%)
Working without pay (0.0%)
Distribution: Salaries of psychologists by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses. These salaries were reported for the larger career group of psychologists, which combines the 3 specialties for this career.
$69K$69K$63K$61K$80K$74K$71K$95K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000Self-employed not incorporatedSelf-employed incorporatedFederal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Distribution: Salaries of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS. Remember that the BLS salaries are for the specialty clinical, counseling, and school psychologists, and may differ signficantly from the ACS salary estimates which combine several career specialties.
$77K$76K$77K$81K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000State governmentLocal governmentPrivateAll
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for psychologists

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$81K$80K$47K$56K$80K$74K$82K$72K$32K$0$50K$100K$150KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
05K10K15K20K25KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Psychologists and gender

With 71% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 84% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
71%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Gender of Psychologists
Men (29%)
Women (71%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median (middle) salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 20%, and the difference for psychologists tops that, with the median salary for men 24% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

$65K$80K$0$50K$100K$150KWomenMen
Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Psychologists have one of the higher percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase for the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job even higher than that for 69% of other jobs.

24%0%20%40%60%80%100%

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race/Origin
Race and origin of psychologists

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a smaller percentage of minority psychologists than for 79% of other careers. As with minority workers, there is also a smaller percentage of foreign-born workers in this career than in most other careers.

Race/origin of psychologists
White (85% )
Black (6% )
Asian (4% )
Multiracial (2% )
Other (2% )
Hispanic (1% )
American Indian (0% )
Pacific Islander (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
13%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
9%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Distribution: Salaries for psychologists by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

$57K$64K$66K$70K$73K$73K$80K$0$50K$100K$150KOtherBlackMultiracialWhiteHispanicAsianAmerican Indian
Distribution: Salaries for psychologists by nativity
$67K$69K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KAll foreign-bornAll native citizens

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), clinical, counseling, and school psychologists typically hold a doctoral or professional degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as psychologists as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for psychologists.

Education attained by psychologists
None
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Doctorate
Details: Education and training recommended for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

Most clinical, counseling, and research psychologists need a doctoral degree. Students can complete a Ph.D. in psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. A Ph.D. in psychology is a research degree that is obtained after taking a comprehensive exam and writing a dissertation based on original research. Ph.D. programs typically include courses on statistics and experimental procedures. The Psy.D. is a clinical degree often based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, school, or health service settings, students usually complete a 1-year internship as part of the doctoral program.

School psychologists need an advanced degree and either certification or licensure to work. Common advanced degrees include education specialist degrees (Ed.S.) and doctoral degrees (Ph.D. or Psy.D.). School psychologist programs include coursework in education and psychology because their work addresses both education and mental health components of students’ development.

Industrial–organizational psychologists typically need a master’s degree, usually including courses in industrial–organizational psychology, statistics, and research design.

When working under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist, other master’s degree graduates can also work as psychological assistants in clinical, counseling, or research settings.

Details: Licensing and certification recommended for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

In most states, practicing psychology or using the title “psychologist” requires licensure. In all states and the District of Columbia, psychologists who practice independently must be licensed where they work.

Licensing laws vary by state and by type of position. Most clinical and counseling psychologists need a doctorate in psychology, an internship, and at least 1 to 2 years of supervised professional experience. They also must pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Information on specific state requirements can be obtained from the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. In many states, licensed psychologists must complete continuing education courses to keep their licenses.

The American Board of Professional Psychology awards specialty certification in 15 areas of psychology, such as clinical health psychology, couple and family psychology, and rehabilitation psychology. The American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology offers certification in neuropsychology. Board certification can demonstrate professional expertise in a specialty area. Certification is not required for most psychologists, but some hospitals and clinics do require certification. In those cases, candidates must have a doctoral degree in psychology, a state license or certification, and any additional criteria required by the specialty field.

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for psychologists? Below we see the distribution of psychologists salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as psychologists, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$52K$61K$69K$87K$0$50K$100K$150KBachelor's Degree (8%)Master's Degree (42%)Professional Deg/Doct (9%)Doctorate (40%)
Bachelor's degree pathways
College majors held by psychologists

This table shows the college majors held by people working as psychologists. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

Degree
Select any title to learn more about that degree
Percentage of Psychologists with this degree
Salary for all majors
Salary distribution (across jobs). Showing 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
Final education level of all people with this major
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Gender of people this bachelor's degree
Men
Women
54.7%
$0$200K$53K
3.1%
$0$200K$48K
2.7%
$0$200K$54K
2.5%
$0$200K$60K
2.3%
$0$200K$55K
1.4%
$0$200K$63K
1.3%
$0$200K$51K
1.3%
$0$200K$50K
1.1%
$0$200K$56K
0.9%
$0$200K$70K
0.9%
$0$200K$49K
0.8%
$0$200K$63K
The link between degrees and careers
The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as psychologists, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by psychologists given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

This job
Top 10 majors
Each major's top ten jobs
CounselorsSocial workersElementary and middle school teachersPsychologistsManagers (specialized areas)Postsecondary teachersLawyers, judges, and magistratesPhysicians and surgeonsHuman resources workersEducation administratorsSocial and community service managersTherapists (specialized areas)Medical and health services managersSecretaries and administrative assistantsFirst-line supervisors of office and administrative support workersRegistered nursesSecondary school teachersPreschool and kindergarten teachersSpecial Education TeachersEditorsWriters and authorsMarketing and sales managersDentistsPhysical scientists (specialized areas)Epidemiologists and Medical/Life ScientistsClinical laboratory technologists and techniciansPharmacistsTeachers and instructors (specialized areas)ClergyChief executives and legislatorsApplications and systems software developersFirst-line supervisors of retail sales workersChildcare workersPsychologySocial WorkSociologyEducational PsychologyClinical PsychologyEnglish Language andLiteratureBiologyGeneral EducationPhilosophy and ReligiousStudiesFamily and ConsumerSciencesAll other degrees
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for psychologists

What jobs will most psychologists hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of psychologists reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list?

PsychologistsCounselorsPhysicians and surgeonsTherapists (specialized areas)Social workersPostsecondary teachersChief executives and legislatorsElementary and middle school teachers
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for psychologists

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies all 7 jobs which were held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as psychologists as well as 1% of respondents after working as psychologists. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for psychologists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Postsecondary teachers
172,500
$0$200K$62K
Elementary and middle school teachers
164,300
$0$200K$51K
Counselors
96,100
$0$200K$44K
Social workers
84,700
$0$200K$43K
Physicians and surgeons
28,600
$0$200K$76K
Chief executives and legislators
24,000
$0$200K$96K
Therapists (specialized areas)
3,000
$0$200K$47K
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for psychologists: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as psychologists? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of psychologists surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Prior careers for psychologists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Percentage Transitioning
What percentage worked in this job the previous year?
Postsecondary teachers
172,500
$0$200K$62K
1.7%
Elementary and middle school teachers
164,300
$0$200K$51K
2.0%
Counselors
96,100
$0$200K$44K
5.5%
Social workers
84,700
$0$200K$43K
2.7%
Medical and health services managers
36,700
$0$200K$69K
1.3%
Physicians and surgeons
28,600
$0$200K$76K
4.0%
Chief executives and legislators
24,000
$0$200K$96K
1.0%
Psychologists
14,300
$0$200K$69K
63.9%
Therapists (specialized areas)
3,000
$0$200K$47K
4.5%
No occupation
1.6%
Read about clinical, counseling, and school psychologists
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Psychologists typically do the following:

  • Conduct scientific studies of behavior and brain function
  • Observe, interview, and survey individuals
  • Identify psychological, emotional, behavioral, or organizational issues and diagnose disorders
  • Research and identify behavioral or emotional patterns
  • Test for patterns that will help them better understand and predict behavior
  • Discuss the treatment of problems with clients
  • Write articles, research papers, and reports to share findings and educate others
  • Supervise interns, clinicians, and counseling professionals

Psychologists seek to understand and explain thoughts, emotions, feelings, and behavior. They use techniques such as observation, assessment, and experimentation to develop theories about the beliefs and feelings that influence individuals.

Psychologists often gather information and evaluate behavior through controlled laboratory experiments, psychoanalysis, or psychotherapy. They also may administer personality, performance, aptitude, or intelligence tests. They look for patterns of behavior or relationships between events, and they use this information when testing theories in their research or when treating patients.

The following are examples of types of psychologists:

Clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Clinical psychologists help people deal with problems ranging from short-term personal issues to severe, chronic conditions.

Clinical psychologists are trained to use a variety of approaches to help individuals. Although strategies generally differ by specialty, clinical psychologists often interview patients, give diagnostic tests, and provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy. They also design behavior modification programs and help patients implement their particular program. Some clinical psychologists focus on specific populations, such as children or the elderly, or on certain specialties, such as neuropsychology.

Clinical psychologists often consult with other health professionals regarding the best treatment for patients, especially treatment that includes medication. Currently, only Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, and New Mexico allow clinical psychologists to prescribe medication to patients.

Counseling psychologists help patients deal with and understand problems, including issues at home, at the workplace, or in their community. Through counseling, these psychologists work with patients to identify their strengths or resources they can use to manage problems. For information on other counseling occupations, see the profiles on marriage and family therapists, substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counselors, and social workers.

Developmental psychologists study the psychological progress and development that take place throughout life. Many developmental psychologists focus on children and adolescents, but they also may study aging and problems facing older adults.

Forensic psychologists use psychological principles in the legal and criminal justice system to help judges, attorneys, and other legal specialists understand the psychological aspects of a particular case. They often testify in court as expert witnesses. They typically specialize in family, civil, or criminal casework.

Industrial–organizational psychologists apply psychology to the workplace by using psychological principles and research methods to solve problems and improve the quality of worklife. They study issues such as workplace productivity, management or employee working styles, and employee morale. They also help top executives, training and development managers, and training and development specialists with policy planning, employee screening or training, and organizational development.

Rehabilitation psychologists work with physically or developmentally disabled individuals. They help improve quality of life or help individuals adjust after a major illness or accident. They may work with physical therapists and teachers to improve health and learning outcomes.

School psychologists apply psychological principles and techniques to education disorders and developmental disorders. They may address student learning and behavioral problems; design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performances; and counsel students and families. They also may consult with other school-based professionals to suggest improvements to teaching, learning, and administrative strategies.

Some psychologists become postsecondary teachers or high school teachers.

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Analytical skills
Psychologists must examine the information they collect and draw logical conclusions.
Communication skills
Psychologists must have strong communication skills because they spend much of their time listening to and speaking with patients or describing their research.
Integrity
Psychologists must keep patients’ problems in confidence, and patients must be able to trust psychologists’ expertise in treating sensitive problems.
Interpersonal skills
Psychologists study and help individuals, so they must be able to work well with clients, patients, and other professionals.
Observational skills
Psychologists study attitude and behavior. They must understand the possible meanings of facial expressions, body positions, actions, and interactions.
Patience
Psychologists must demonstrate patience, because conducting research or treating patients may take a long time.
Problem-solving skills
Psychologists need problem-solving skills to collect information, design research, evaluate programs, and find treatments or solutions to mental and behavioral problems.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists was higher than 82% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $77KAll jobs' median $39K$73K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K
Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists are anticipated to grow by 14% over the next decade; only 13% of jobs are predicted to grow more.

The projected employment for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

2000201020202030050,000100,000150,000200,000
Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
Employment
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most clinical, counseling, and school psychologists? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as clinical, counseling, and school psychologists. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

One important factor in the differences between ACS and BLS data is that the ACS numbers are for all psychologists, comprised of all specialities listed in the menu bar, and you can choose to view the BLS at the specialty or full career level.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS for this specialty
Number of Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.00.51.01.52.0
Salary
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where clinical, counseling, and school psychologists earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for psychologists compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for psychologists.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information. The ACS salaries are for all psychologists, which combines the specialities from which you can choose at the top of the page.

Choose the metric to review
In-state comparisions
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS for this specialty
Median salary ratio: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists to all workers (BLS for this specialty)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which clinical, counseling, and school psychologists earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.00.51.01.52.02.5
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Psychologists (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?
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