Physicians and surgeons
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Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat injuries or illnesses.
Titles for this career often contain these words
About 98% of physicians and surgeons have a graduate-level education, and 100% have at least a bachelor's degree.
Education attained by physicians and surgeons
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Context: workers with graduate degrees
More physicians and surgeons have graduate degrees than 99% of other careeers.
Workforce size
Anesthesiologists, with 34,500 workers, form a smaller workforce than 60% of careers.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for anesthesiologists are expected to grow by 5%, and should have about 1,200 job openings a year.
The median (middle) salary for anesthesiologists is higher than 99% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most anesthesiologists.
This job's median $208KAll jobs' median $39K$200K$38K20142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K$200K$250K
Note: The salaries for anesthesiologists have been top-coded by the BLS; in 2018, all annual salaries larger than $208,000 are recorded as $208,000.
Context: Median Salary
Women account for 36% of physicians and surgeons -- that's a larger percentage than 50% of other jobs.
Gender of physicians and surgeons
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For physicians and surgeons, the median men's salary was 3% more the median woman's salary.
About 29% of physicians and surgeons are minority, and 28% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of physicians and surgeons
Pacific Islander
American Indian
Context: Foreign-born workers (28%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Anesthesiologists per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 57% of physicians and surgeons, and 75% have company-sponsored health insurance (17% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for physicians and surgeons
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
Top college degrees
Here are the top college degrees held by the 99% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.
Worker concerns
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of anesthesiologists who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections (90%)
  • Consequence of Error (88%)
  • Exposed to Contaminants (79%)
  • Exposed to Radiation (77%)
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety (76%)
  • Time Pressure (71%)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations (46%)
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions (40%)
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do physicians and surgeons earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. In particular, the ACS data is reported for the larger career group physicians and surgeons, which combines the data for 8 careers, including anesthesiologists. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data is classified by SOC specialty, and excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for anesthesiologists, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for anesthesiologists compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for anesthesiologists (BLS Salary Data)
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
Note: The salaries for anesthesiologists have been top-coded by the BLS; in 2018, all annual salaries larger than $208,000 are recorded as $208,000.
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. Additionally, we only have ACS survey data for the larger career category and not for the specialty level. We first show the full salary distribution for all physicians and surgeons, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for physicians and surgeons compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for physicians and surgeons (ACS Salary Data)
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where anesthesiologists work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Physicians and surgeons (ACS)
Private for-profit (41.0%)
Private not-for-profit (28.9%)
Local government (1.9%)
State government (5.5%)
Federal government (4.1%)
Self-employed incorporated (14.0%)
Self-employed not incorporated (4.4%)
Working without pay (0.0%)
Distribution: Salaries of physicians and surgeons by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses. These salaries were reported for the larger career group of physicians and surgeons, which combines the 8 specialties for this career.
$76K$64K$110K$125K$85K$63K$63K$93K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000Self-employed not incorporatedSelf-employed incorporatedFederal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Note: The salaries for anesthesiologists have been top-coded by the BLS; in 2018, all annual salaries larger than $208,000 are recorded as $208,000.
Distribution: Salaries of anesthesiologists by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS. Remember that the BLS salaries are for the specialty anesthesiologists, and may differ signficantly from the ACS salary estimates which combine several career specialties.
Note: The salaries for anesthesiologists have been top-coded by the BLS; in 2018, all annual salaries larger than $208,000 are recorded as $208,000.
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for physicians and surgeons

Is this a job that rewards experience, or is this job most likely a part of a career ladder? This first chart suggests how much this job rewards experience with increased salaries.

Now let's dive a little deeper. Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working at each age change. Does this seem to be a job for the young or the old, or could it be a career offering steady salary growth for many years?

We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$118K$123K$122K$118K$54K$63K$121K$105K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
020K40K60K80K100K120KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Physicians and surgeons and gender

With 36% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 50% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
Gender of Physicians and surgeons
Men (64%)
Women (36%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 21%. The situation is better for physicians and surgeons, with the median salary for men only 3.0% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Physicians and surgeons have one of the smaller percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job lower than that for 89% of other jobs.


Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race and origin of physicians and surgeons

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a higher percentage of minority physicians and surgeons than for 86% of other careers. This career hires a larger percentage of foreign-born workers than most other careers.

Race/origin of physicians and surgeons
White (70% )
Asian (21% )
Black (5% )
Multiracial (2% )
Other (1% )
Hispanic (0% )
American Indian (0% )
Pacific Islander (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
Distribution: Salaries for physicians and surgeons by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

Distribution: Salaries for physicians and surgeons by nativity
$74K$77K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KAll foreign-bornAll native citizens

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Physicians and surgeons and Part-time/Full-time employment

We've found that somes jobs hava a huge number of part-time workers, and that typically most who are working part-time are doing so because they cannot find full-time work or the job they have cannot provide full-time hours. With 8% part-time workers, this occupation has a lower percentage of part-time workers than 61% of careers.

Context: Part-time workers in the workforce
Why workers are part-time
Full-Time is less than 35 hours a week
Retired/Social Security limit on earnings
Could not find full-time work
Seasonal work
Slack work/business conditions
Health/medical limitations
Child care problems
Other family/personal obligations
Other reasons
Distribution: Salaries by part-time/full-time status

The salary distributions for full-time and part-time physicians and surgeons is shown following.

$90K$76K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KPart-time workersFull-time workers
Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by anesthesiologists

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), anesthesiologists typically hold a doctoral or professional degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as physicians and surgeons as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for physicians and surgeons.

Education attained by physicians and surgeons
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Details: Education and training recommended for anesthesiologists

Most applicants to medical school have at least a bachelor's degree, and many have advanced degrees. Although no specific major is required, students usually complete undergraduate work in biology, chemistry, physics, math, and English. Students also may take courses in the humanities and social sciences. In addition, some students volunteer at local hospitals or clinics to gain experience in a healthcare setting.

Medical schools are highly competitive. Most applicants must submit transcripts, scores from the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and letters of recommendation. Schools also consider an applicant’s personality, leadership qualities, and participation in extracurricular activities. Most schools require applicants to interview with members of the admissions committee.

A few medical schools offer combined undergraduate and medical school programs that last 6 to 8 years.

Students spend most of the first 2 years of medical school in laboratories and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology, psychology, medical ethics, and in the laws governing medicine. They also gain practical skills; learning to take medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses.

During their last 2 years, medical students work with patients under the supervision of experienced physicians in hospitals and clinics. Through rotations in internal medicine, family practice, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery, they gain experience in diagnosing and treating illnesses in a variety of areas.

Details: Licensing and certification recommended for anesthesiologists

All states require physicians and surgeons to be licensed; requirements vary by state. To qualify for a license, candidates must graduate from an accredited medical school and complete residency training in their specialty.

All physicians and surgeons also must pass a standardized national licensure exam. M.D.s take the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). D.O.s take the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA). For specific state information about licensing, contact your state’s medical board.

Certification is not required for physicians and surgeons; however, it may increase their employment opportunities. M.D.s and D.O.s seeking board certification in a specialty may spend up to 7 years in residency training; the length of time varies with the specialty. To become board certified, candidates must complete a residency program and pass a specialty certification exam from a certifying board including the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), or the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS).

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for physicians and surgeons? Below we see the distribution of physicians and surgeons salaries based on the education attained. You may have noticed in the dashboard and elsewhere that BLS top-codes salaries. ACS also engages in a form of top-coding, but by looking at the broader field of physicians and surgeons and using the ACS, we are able to see some of the higher salaries and can give a better idea of the range of salaries for this field. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as physicians and surgeons, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$206K$180K$108K$75K$77K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K$250KHigh School (0%)Bachelor's Degree (2%)Master's Degree (1%)Professional Deg/Doct (80%)Doctorate (17%)
Bachelor's degree pathways
College majors held by physicians and surgeons

This table shows the college majors held by people working as physicians and surgeons. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

Select any title to learn more about that degree
Percentage of Physicians and surgeons with this degree
Salary for all majors
Salary distribution (across jobs). Showing 0-$200,000.
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Final education level of all people with this major
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Gender of people this bachelor's degree
The link between degrees and careers
The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as physicians and surgeons, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by physicians and surgeons given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

Physicians and surgeonsManagers (specialized areas)Postsecondary teachersElementary and middle school teachersDentistsRegistered nursesPhysical scientists (specialized areas)Epidemiologists and Medical/Life ScientistsClinical laboratory technologists and techniciansPharmacistsChemists and materials scientistsSecondary school teachersApplications and systems software developersCounselorsSocial workersPsychologistsLawyers, judges, and magistratesHuman resources workersScience techniciansPhysician assistantsMedical and health services managersChiropractorsVeterinariansFirst-line supervisors of retail sales workersAccountants and auditorsWholesale and manufacturing sales representativesNurse PractitionersNursing, psychiatric, and home health aidesNurse anesthetistsBiological scientistsPhysical therapistsBiologyChemistryPsychologyBiochemical SciencesHealth and MedicalPreparatory ProgramsMultidisciplinary or GeneralScienceNursingZoologyPhysiologyMolecular BiologyAll other degreesThis jobTop 10 majorsEach major's top ten jobs
How your college major impacts salary
What college major is your best entry?

Does your major impact your salary? About 0% of people working as physicians and surgeons have at least a bachelor's degree. In the chart below, each dot represents a college major held by workers in the field. The dots to the right correspond to the majors most frequently working as physicians and surgeons, and the dots at the top are the majors who earn the most working in this career. The shading shows the percentage who have a graduate education in addition to their bachelor's degree. The dotted line shows the median salary for everyone working as physicians and surgeons.

Darker colors have a larger percentage with graduate degreesOverall median salary0.0%5.0%10.0%15.0%20.0%25.0%30.0%35.0%Percentage with this major$50,000$60,000$70,000$80,000$90,000$100,000$110,000$120,000$130,000$140,000$150,000$160,000Median salary with this major
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for physicians and surgeons

What jobs will most physicians and surgeons hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of physicians and surgeons reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list? For physicians and surgeons, there isn't a lot of action in this chart! This isn't a career that invites much moving around.

Physicians and surgeonsMedical and health services managers
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for physicians and surgeons

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies the one job which was held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as physicians and surgeons as well as 1% of respondents after working as physicians and surgeons. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for physicians and surgeons
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Medical and health services managers
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for physicians and surgeons: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as physicians and surgeons? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of physicians and surgeons surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Read about anesthesiologists
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Physicians and surgeons typically do the following:

  • Take a patient’s medical history
  • Update charts and patient information to show current findings and treatments
  • Order tests for nurses or other healthcare staff to perform
  • Review test results to identify any abnormal findings
  • Recommend and design a plan of treatment
  • Address concerns or answer questions that patients have about their health and well-being
  • Help patients take care of their health by discussing topics such as proper nutrition and hygiene

Physicians and surgeons work in one or more specialties. The following are examples of types of physicians and surgeons:

Anesthesiologists focus on the care of surgical patients and pain relief. They administer drugs (anesthetics) that reduce or eliminate the sensation of pain during an operation or another medical procedure. During surgery, they are responsible for adjusting the amount of anesthetic as needed, and monitoring the patient's heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing. They also work outside of the operating room, providing pain relief for patients in the intensive care unit, for women in labor and delivery of babies, and for patients who suffer from chronic pain. Anesthesiologists work with other physicians and surgeons to decide on treatments and procedures before, during, and after surgery.

Family and general physicians assess and treat a range of conditions that occur in everyday life. These conditions include sinus and respiratory infections to broken bones. Family and general physicians typically have regular, long-term patients.

General internists diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for a range of problems that affect internal organ systems such as the stomach, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. Internists use a variety of diagnostic techniques to treat patients through medication or hospitalization. They work mostly with adult patients.

General pediatricians provide care for infants, children, teenagers, and young adults. They specialize in diagnosing and treating problems specific to younger people. Most pediatricians treat common illnesses, minor injuries, and infectious diseases, and administer vaccinations. Some pediatricians specialize in pediatric surgery or serious medical conditions that commonly affect younger patients, such as autoimmune disorders or chronic ailments.

Obstetricians and gynecologists (OB/GYNs) provide care related to pregnancy, childbirth, and the female reproductive system. They treat and counsel women throughout their pregnancy and deliver babies. They also diagnose and treat health issues specific to women, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, hormonal disorders, and symptoms related to menopause.

Psychiatrists are primary mental health physicians. They diagnose and treat mental illnesses through a combination of personal counseling (psychotherapy), psychoanalysis, hospitalization, and medication. Psychotherapy involves regular discussions with patients about their problems. The psychiatrist helps them find solutions through changes in their behavioral patterns, explorations of their past experiences, or group and family therapy sessions. Psychoanalysis involves long-term psychotherapy and counseling for patients. Psychiatrists may prescribe medications to correct chemical imbalances that cause some mental illnesses.

Surgeons treat injuries, diseases, and deformities through operations. Using a variety of instruments, a surgeon corrects physical deformities, repairs bone and tissue after injuries, or performs preventive or elective surgeries on patients. Although a large number perform general surgery, many surgeons choose to specialize in a specific area. Specialties include orthopedic surgery (the treatment of the musculoskeletal system), neurological surgery (treatment of the brain and nervous system), cardiovascular surgery, and plastic or reconstructive surgery. Like other physicians, surgeons examine patients, perform and interpret diagnostic tests, and counsel patients on preventive healthcare. Some specialist physicians also perform surgery.

Physicians and surgeons may work in a number of other medical and surgical specialties and subspecialties. The following specialists are some of the most common examples:

  • Allergists (specialists in diagnosing and treating hay fever or other allergies)
  • Cardiologists (heart specialists)
  • Dermatologists (skin specialists)
  • Gastroenterologists (digestive system specialists)
  • Ophthalmologists (eye specialists)
  • Pathologists (specialists who study body tissue to see if it is normal or abnormal)
  • Radiologists (specialists who review and interpret x rays and other images and deliver radiation treatments for cancer and other illnesses)

Physicians in healthcare establishments work daily with other healthcare staff, such as registered nurses, other physicians, medical assistants, and medical records and health information technicians.

Some physicians may choose to work in fields that do not involve patient care, such as medical research or public policy. 

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of anesthesiologists? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Communication skills
Physicians and surgeons need to be excellent communicators. They must communicate effectively with their patients and other healthcare support staff.
Patients who are sick or injured may be in extreme pain or distress. Physicians and surgeons must treat patients and their families with compassion and understanding.
Detail oriented
Patients must receive appropriate treatment and medications. Physicians and surgeons must accurately monitor and record various pieces of information related to patient care.
Physicians and surgeons may work with very precise and sometimes sharp tools, and mistakes can have serious consequences.
Leadership skills
Physicians who work in their own practice must manage a staff of other professionals.
Organizational skills
Good recordkeeping and other organizational skills are critical in both medical and business settings.
Physicians and surgeons may work for long periods with patients who need special attention. Persons who fear medical treatment may require more patience.
Physical stamina
Physicians and surgeons should be comfortable lifting or turning disabled patients, or performing other physical tasks. Surgeons may spend a great deal of time bending over patients during surgery.
Problem-solving skills
Physicians and surgeons need to evaluate patients’ symptoms and administer the appropriate treatments. They need to do this quickly if a patient’s life is threatened.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for anesthesiologists
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for anesthesiologists was higher than 99% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $208KAll jobs' median $39K$192K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K$200K$250K

Note: The salaries for anesthesiologists have been top-coded by the BLS; in 2018, all annual salaries larger than $208,000 are recorded as $208,000.

Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for anesthesiologists are anticipated to grow by 5% over the next decade; 45% of jobs are projected to grow more.

The projected employment for anesthesiologists is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most anesthesiologists? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as anesthesiologists. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

One important factor in the differences between ACS and BLS data is that the ACS numbers are for all physicians and surgeons, comprised of all specialities listed in the menu bar, and you can choose to view the BLS at the specialty or full career level.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS for this specialty
Number of Anesthesiologists per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where anesthesiologists earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for physicians and surgeons compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for physicians and surgeons.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information. The ACS salaries are for all physicians and surgeons, which combines the specialities from which you can choose at the top of the page.

Choose the metric to review
Location-adjusted median salary
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS for this specialty
Location-adjusted median salary for Anesthesiologists (BLS for this specialty)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which anesthesiologists earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Physicians and surgeons (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?