Millwrights
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Overview
Industrial machinery mechanics and maintenance workers maintain and repair factory equipment and other industrial machinery, such as conveying systems, production machinery, and packaging equipment. Millwrights install, dismantle, repair, reassemble, and move machinery in factories, power plants, and construction sites.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for millwrights are expected to grow by 10%, and should have about 4,000 job openings a year.
Safety from automation
The likelihood of autmoation for ${title} is near the middle of all careers' likelihoods.
Workforce size
Millwrights, with 39,500 workers, are near the middle of all careers in the number employed.
Education
Only 4% of millwrights have a bachelor's degree or higher.
Education attained by millwrights
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Context: workers with bachelor's degrees
Fewer millwrights have bachelor's degrees than 87% of other careeers.
Salaries
The median (middle) salary for millwrights is higher than 60% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most millwrights.
This job's median $55KAll jobs' median $39K$54K$38K20142015201620172018$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K
Context: Median Salary
Gender
Women account for 2% of millwrights -- that's a smaller percentage than 94% of other jobs.
Gender of millwrights
Men
Women
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For millwrights, the median men's salary was 20% more the median woman's salary.
Race/Origin
About 7% of millwrights are minority, and 5% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of millwrights
White
Black
Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Asian
American Indian
Multiracial
Other
Context: Foreign-born workers (5%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Millwrights per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 71% of millwrights, and 78% have company-sponsored health insurance (15% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for millwrights
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
The downside
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of millwrights who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety (100%)
  • Time Pressure (96%)
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment (88%)
  • Exposed to Contaminants (84%)
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions (84%)
  • Exposed to High Places (83%)
  • Consequence of Error (80%)
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings (59%)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations (39%)
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People (34%)
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration (33%)
SOURCES:24.0 O*NET
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do millwrights earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for millwrights, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for millwrights compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for millwrights (BLS Salary Data)
$55K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
$55K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. We first show the full salary distribution for all millwrights, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for millwrights compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for millwrights (ACS Salary Data)
$61K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
$61K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where millwrights work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Millwrights (ACS)
Private for-profit (94.8%)
Private not-for-profit (2.1%)
Local government (0.6%)
State government (0.3%)
Federal government (0.4%)
Self-employed incorporated (1.0%)
Self-employed not incorporated (0.9%)
Working without pay (0.0%)
Distribution: Salaries of millwrights by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses.
$61K$62K$70K$53K$52K$0$20,000$40,000$60,000$80,000$100,000$120,000Federal governmentLocal governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Distribution: Salaries of millwrights by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS.
$55K$65K$55K$0$20,000$40,000$60,000$80,000$100,000Local governmentPrivateAll
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for millwrights

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$64K$62K$61K$60K$47K$62K$56K$59K$63K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
02K4K6K8KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Millwrights and gender

With 2% women, this occupation has a lower percentage of women than 94% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
2%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Gender of Millwrights
Men (98%)
Women (2%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

We only have enough data to accuarately show the salary distribution for men. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

$61K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KMen
Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Millwrights have one of the higher percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase for the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job even higher than that for 60% of other jobs.

20%0%20%40%60%80%100%

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race/Origin
Race and origin of millwrights

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a smaller percentage of minority millwrights than for 98% of other careers. As with minority workers, there is also a smaller percentage of foreign-born workers in this career than in most other careers.

Race/origin of millwrights
White (91% )
Black (3% )
Other (2% )
Multiracial (1% )
Asian (1% )
American Indian (1% )
Hispanic (0% )
Pacific Islander (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
7%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
5%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Distribution: Salaries for millwrights by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

$42K$49K$62K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KBlackOtherWhite
Distribution: Salaries for millwrights by nativity
$52K$61K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KAll foreign-bornAll native citizens

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by millwrights

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), millwrights typically hold a high school diploma or equivalent.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as millwrights as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for millwrights.

Education attained by millwrights
None
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Doctorate
Details: Education and training recommended for millwrights

Industrial machinery mechanics, machinery maintenance workers, and millwrights generally need at least a high school diploma or equivalent. Some mechanics and millwrights complete a 2-year associate’s degree program in industrial maintenance. Industrial maintenance programs may include courses such as welding, mathematics, hydraulics, and pneumatics.

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for millwrights? Below we see the distribution of millwrights salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as millwrights, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$49K$58K$63K$68K$59K$80K$0$50K$100K$150KNone (8%)High School (44%)Some College (32%)Associate's Degree (12%)Bachelor's Degree (3%)Master's Degree (1%)
Certificate/degree pathways

The Department of Education recommends the following college degree programs as preparation for this career. You can click the program row to learn more about the program and explore a list of schools that offer the program.

Program
Education
Education level of awarded degrees
Less than bachelor's
bachelor's degree
Higher than bachelor's
Gender
Gender of graduates
Men
Women
Race/Origin
Race/origin of graduates
White
Minority
International
Number of degrees awarded in 2017
Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology
6,617
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for millwrights

What jobs will most millwrights hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of millwrights reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list?

MillwrightsProduction workersAssemblers and fabricators (specialized areas)First-line supervisors of production and operating workersIndustrial and refractory machinery mechanicsHand laborers and freight, stock, and material moversProduction, planning, and expediting clerksMetal and plastic workersMachinistsWelding, soldering, and brazing workersTaxi drivers and chauffeursGeneral office clerksPhotographersAccountants and auditorsJanitors and building cleanersMaintenance and repair workersElectriciansConstruction managersFirst-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workersEngineering technicians
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for millwrights

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies all 7 jobs which were held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as millwrights as well as 1% of respondents after working as millwrights. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for millwrights
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Maintenance and repair workers
155,500
$0$200K$42K
Assemblers and fabricators (specialized areas)
131,900
$0$200K$30K
First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers
70,600
$0$200K$56K
Welding, soldering, and brazing workers
51,000
$0$200K$39K
Machinists
40,900
$0$200K$46K
Production workers
37,400
$0$200K$32K
Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics
33,200
$0$200K$50K
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for millwrights: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as millwrights? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of millwrights surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Prior careers for millwrights
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Percentage Transitioning
What percentage worked in this job the previous year?
Customer service representatives
373,800
$0$200K$32K
1.4%
Stock clerks and order fillers
269,400
$0$200K$26K
1.4%
General and operations managers
210,700
$0$200K$67K
1.2%
Grounds maintenance workers
191,100
$0$200K$23K
1.1%
Maintenance and repair workers
155,500
$0$200K$42K
1.4%
Assemblers and fabricators (specialized areas)
131,900
$0$200K$30K
1.3%
Hand packers and packagers
108,600
$0$200K$21K
1.1%
Automotive service technicians and mechanics
78,200
$0$200K$36K
1.4%
First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers
70,600
$0$200K$56K
3.2%
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks
67,300
$0$200K$31K
1.3%
Welding, soldering, and brazing workers
51,000
$0$200K$39K
3.5%
Machinists
40,900
$0$200K$46K
1.3%
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers
39,100
$0$200K$43K
1.5%
Production workers
37,400
$0$200K$32K
2.1%
Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics
33,200
$0$200K$50K
7.5%
Parking lot attendants
24,000
$0$200K$23K
1.1%
Installation, maintenance, and repair workers
22,800
$0$200K$39K
2.2%
Mechanical engineers
21,200
$0$200K$83K
2.8%
Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics
20,400
$0$200K$51K
1.7%
Computer control programmers and operators
17,600
$0$200K$43K
1.0%
Read about millwrights
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Industrial machinery mechanics, machinery maintenance workers, and millwrights typically do the following:

  • Read technical manuals to understand equipment and controls
  • Disassemble machinery and equipment when there is a problem
  • Repair or replace broken or malfunctioning components
  • Perform tests and run initial batches to make sure that the machine is running smoothly
  • Detect minor problems by performing basic diagnostic tests
  • Test malfunctioning machinery to determine whether major repairs are needed
  • Adjust and calibrate equipment and machinery to optimal specifications
  • Clean and lubricate equipment or machinery
  • Move machinery and equipment

Industrial machinery mechanics, also called maintenance machinists, keep machines in working order by detecting and correcting errors before the machine or the products it produces are damaged. Many of these machines are increasingly run by computers. Industrial machinery mechanics use technical manuals, their understanding of industrial equipment, and observation to determine the cause of a problem. For example, after detecting a vibration from a machine, they must decide whether it is the result of worn belts, weak motor bearings, or some other problem. They may use computerized diagnostic systems and vibration analysis techniques to help figure out the source of problems. Examples of machines they may work with are robotic welding arms, automobile assembly line conveyor belts, and hydraulic lifts.

After diagnosing a problem, the industrial machinery mechanic may take the equipment apart to repair or replace the necessary parts. Once a repair is made, mechanics test a machine to ensure that it is operating correctly.

In addition to working with hand tools, mechanics commonly use lathes, grinders, and drill presses. Many also are required to weld.

Machinery maintenance workers do basic maintenance and repairs on machines. They clean and lubricate machinery, perform basic diagnostic tests, check the performance of the machine, and test damaged machine parts to determine whether major repairs are necessary.

Machinery maintenance workers must follow machine specifications and adhere to maintenance schedules. They perform minor repairs, generally leaving major repairs to industrial machinery mechanics.

Maintenance workers use a variety of tools to do repairs and preventive maintenance. For example, they may use a screwdriver or socket wrenches to adjust a motor’s alignment, or they might use a hoist to lift a heavy printing press off the ground.

Millwrights install, maintain, and disassemble industrial machines. Putting together a machine can take a few days or several weeks.

Millwrights perform repairs that include replacing worn or defective parts of machines. They also may be involved in taking apart the entire machine, a common situation when a manufacturing plant needs to clear floor space for new machinery. In taking apart a machine, millwrights carefully disassemble, categorize, and package each part of the machine.

Millwrights use a variety of hand tools, such as hammers and levels, as well as equipment for welding, brazing, and cutting. They also use measuring tools, such as micrometers, measuring tapes, lasers, and other precision-measuring devices. On large projects, they commonly use cranes and trucks. When millwrights and managers determine the best place for a machine, millwrights use forklifts, hoists, winches, cranes, and other equipment to bring the parts to the desired location.

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of millwrights? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Manual dexterity
Industrial machinery mechanics, machinery maintenance workers, and millwrights must have a steady hand and good hand–eye coordination when handling very small parts.
Mechanical skills
Industrial machinery mechanics, machinery maintenance workers, and millwrights use technical manuals and sophisticated diagnostic equipment to figure out why machines are not working. Workers must be able to reassemble large, complex machines after finishing a repair.
Troubleshooting skills
Industrial machinery mechanics, machinery maintenance workers, and millwrights must observe, diagnose, and fix problems that a machine may be having.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for millwrights
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for millwrights was higher than 60% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $55KAll jobs' median $39K$58K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K
Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for millwrights are anticipated to grow by 10% over the next decade, which is faster growth than is predicted for 63% of other jobs.

The projected employment for millwrights is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

2000201020202030020,00040,00060,00080,000
Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
Employment
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most millwrights? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as millwrights. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS
Number of Millwrights per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.00.20.40.60.81.01.2
Salary
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where millwrights earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for millwrights compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for millwrights.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information.

Choose the metric to review
In-state comparisions
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS
Median salary ratio: Millwrights to all workers (BLS)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which millwrights earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.00.51.01.52.02.5
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Millwrights (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?
Choose the similarity measure to compare careers
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