Epidemiologists and Medical/Life Scientists
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Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
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Overview
Medical scientists conduct research aimed at improving overall human health. They often use clinical trials and other investigative methods to reach their findings.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for medical scientists, except epidemiologists are expected to grow by 13%, and should have about 12,200 job openings a year.
Safety from automation
Medical scientists, except epidemiologists are less likely to be automated than 96% of other careers.
Workforce size
Medical scientists, except epidemiologists, with 120,000 workers, form a larger workforce than 69% of careers.
Education
About 77% of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists have a graduate-level education, and 98% have at least a bachelor's degree.
Education attained by epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Context: workers with graduate degrees
More epidemiologists and medical/life scientists have graduate degrees than 97% of other careeers.
Salaries
The median (middle) salary for medical scientists, except epidemiologists is higher than 87% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most medical scientists, except epidemiologists.
This job's median $85KAll jobs' median $39K$86K$38K20142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Context: Median Salary
Gender
Women account for 52% of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists -- that's a larger percentage than 66% of other jobs.
Gender of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
Men
Women
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, the median men's salary was 13% more the median woman's salary.
Race/Origin
About 39% of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists are minority, and 43% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
White
Black
Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Asian
American Indian
Multiracial
Other
Context: Foreign-born workers (43%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 61% of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, and 77% have company-sponsored health insurance (15% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
Top college degrees
Here are the top college degrees held by the 98% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.
The downside
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of medical scientists, except epidemiologists who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Time Pressure (60%)
  • Consequence of Error (40%)
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety (36%)
SOURCES:24.0 O*NET
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do epidemiologists and medical/life scientists earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. In particular, the ACS data is reported for the larger career group epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, which combines the data for 3 careers, including medical scientists, except epidemiologists. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data is classified by SOC specialty, and excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for medical scientists, except epidemiologists, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for medical scientists, except epidemiologists compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for medical scientists, except epidemiologists (BLS Salary Data)
$85K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
$85K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. Additionally, we only have ACS survey data for the larger career category and not for the specialty level. We first show the full salary distribution for all epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists (ACS Salary Data)
$67K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
$67K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where medical scientists, except epidemiologists work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Epidemiologists and Medical/Life Scientists (ACS)
Private for-profit (48.6%)
Private not-for-profit (28.5%)
Local government (2.8%)
State government (11.2%)
Federal government (8.0%)
Self-employed incorporated (0.6%)
Self-employed not incorporated (0.3%)
Working without pay (0.0%)
Distribution: Salaries of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses. These salaries were reported for the larger career group of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, which combines the 3 specialties for this career.
$67K$59K$54K$78K$65K$87K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000Federal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Distribution: Salaries of medical scientists, except epidemiologists by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS. Remember that the BLS salaries are for the specialty medical scientists, except epidemiologists, and may differ signficantly from the ACS salary estimates which combine several career specialties.
$85K$126K$85K$89K$61K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000Federal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivateAll
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$100K$49K$82K$65K$99K$52K$103K$95K$46K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
010K20K30KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Epidemiologists and medical/life scientists and gender

With 52% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 66% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
52%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Gender of Epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
Men (48%)
Women (52%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 20%. The situation is a little better for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, with the median salary for men 13% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

$64K$72K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KWomenMen
Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Epidemiologists and medical/life scientists have one of the middle percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase for the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job higher than that for 35% of other jobs.

13%0%20%40%60%80%100%

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race/Origin
Race and origin of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a higher percentage of minority epidemiologists and medical/life scientists than for 96% of other careers. This career hires a larger percentage of foreign-born workers than most other careers.

Race/origin of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
White (60% )
Asian (31% )
Black (5% )
Multiracial (2% )
Other (1% )
Hispanic (0% )
American Indian (0% )
Pacific Islander (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
39%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
43%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Distribution: Salaries for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

$64K$66K$66K$67K$0$50K$100K$150KMultiracialAsianBlackWhite
Distribution: Salaries for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists by nativity
$63K$70K$0$50K$100K$150KAll foreign-bornAll native citizens

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by medical scientists, except epidemiologists

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), medical scientists, except epidemiologists typically hold a doctoral or professional degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists.

Education attained by epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
None
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Doctorate
Details: Education and training recommended for medical scientists, except epidemiologists

Students planning careers as medical scientists generally pursue a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry, or a related field. Undergraduate students benefit from taking a broad range of classes, including life sciences, physical sciences, and math. Students also typically take courses that develop communication and writing skills, because they must learn to write grants effectively and publish their research findings.

After students have completed their undergraduate studies, they typically enter Ph.D. programs. Dual-degree programs are available that pair a Ph.D. with a range of specialized medical degrees. A few degree programs that are commonly paired with Ph.D. studies are Medical Doctor (M.D.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.), and advanced nursing degrees. Whereas Ph.D. studies focus on research methods, such as project design and data interpretation, students in dual-degree programs learn both the clinical skills needed to be a physician and the research skills needed to be a scientist.

Graduate programs emphasize both laboratory work and original research. These programs offer prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs culminate in a dissertation that the candidate presents before a committee of professors. Students may specialize in a particular field, such as gerontology, neurology, or cancer.

Those who go to medical school spend most of the first 2 years in labs and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, microbiology, pathology, medical ethics, and medical law. They also learn how to record medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses. They may be required to participate in residency programs, meeting the same requirements that physicians and surgeons have to fulfill.

Medical scientists often continue their education with postdoctoral work. This provides additional and more independent lab experience, including experience in specific processes and techniques, such as gene splicing. Often, that experience is transferable to other research projects.

Details: Licensing and certification recommended for medical scientists, except epidemiologists

Medical scientists primarily conduct research and typically do not need licenses or certifications. However, those who administer drugs or gene therapy or who otherwise practice medicine on patients in clinical trials or a private practice need a license to practice as a physician.

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists? Below we see the distribution of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$62K$62K$66K$66K$73K$68K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KHigh School (1%)Some College (1%)Bachelor's Degree (21%)Master's Degree (24%)Professional Deg/Doct (9%)Doctorate (44%)
Bachelor's degree pathways
College majors held by epidemiologists and medical/life scientists

This table shows the college majors held by people working as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

Degree
Select any title to learn more about that degree
Percentage of Epidemiologists and medical/life scientists with this degree
Salary for all majors
Salary distribution (across jobs). Showing 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
Final education level of all people with this major
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Gender of people this bachelor's degree
Men
Women
21.9%
$0$200K$63K
9.1%
$0$200K$73K
5.5%
$0$200K$65K
3.9%
$0$200K$53K
3.8%
$0$200K$67K
3.5%
$0$200K$86K
2.8%
$0$200K$61K
1.8%
$0$200K$70K
1.6%
$0$200K$92K
1.3%
$0$200K$97K
1.0%
$0$200K$73K
1.0%
$0$200K$72K
The link between degrees and careers
The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by epidemiologists and medical/life scientists given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

This job
Top 10 majors
Each major's top ten jobs
Physicians and surgeonsPostsecondary teachersManagers (specialized areas)Elementary and middle school teachersDentistsRegistered nursesPhysical scientists (specialized areas)Epidemiologists and Medical/Life ScientistsClinical laboratory technologists and techniciansPharmacistsChemists and materials scientistsChief executives and legislatorsScience techniciansCounselorsSocial workersPsychologistsLawyers, judges, and magistratesHuman resources workersEducation administratorsBiological scientistsMedical and health services managersDiagnostic related technologists and techniciansRespiratory therapistsApplications and systems software developersEngineers (specialized areas)Computer programmersFirst-line supervisors of retail sales workersHealth Practitioner Support Technologists and TechniciansAccountants and auditorsWholesale and manufacturing sales representativesSecondary school teachersBiologyChemistryBiochemical SciencesPsychologyMicrobiologyMedical TechnologiesTechniciansPhysicsMolecular BiologyPharmacy, PharmaceuticalSciences, andAdministrationMultidisciplinary or GeneralScienceAll other degrees
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists

What jobs will most epidemiologists and medical/life scientists hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list?

Epidemiologists and Medical/Life ScientistsPhysical scientists (specialized areas)Postsecondary teachersManagers (specialized areas)Physicians and surgeonsBiological scientistsClinical laboratory technologists and techniciansChemists and materials scientistsScience techniciansFinancial managersInspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighersPharmacistsOffice and administrative support workersTeachers and instructors (specialized areas)
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies all 8 jobs which were held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists as well as 1% of respondents after working as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Postsecondary teachers
172,500
$0$200K$62K
Managers (specialized areas)
84,000
$0$200K$72K
Physicians and surgeons
28,600
$0$200K$76K
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians
25,900
$0$200K$46K
Science technicians
24,800
$0$200K$41K
Biological scientists
11,200
$0$200K$60K
Chemists and materials scientists
9,400
$0$200K$67K
Physical scientists (specialized areas)
2,000
$0$200K$69K
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as epidemiologists and medical/life scientists? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of epidemiologists and medical/life scientists surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Prior careers for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Percentage Transitioning
What percentage worked in this job the previous year?
Waiters and waitresses
522,900
$0$200K$21K
1.1%
Customer service representatives
373,800
$0$200K$32K
1.0%
Registered nurses
203,800
$0$200K$63K
1.6%
Postsecondary teachers
172,500
$0$200K$62K
8.4%
Managers (specialized areas)
84,000
$0$200K$72K
3.1%
Physicians and surgeons
28,600
$0$200K$76K
3.8%
Compliance officers
26,000
$0$200K$65K
1.2%
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians
25,900
$0$200K$46K
1.9%
Science technicians
24,800
$0$200K$41K
1.8%
Epidemiologists and Medical/Life Scientists
13,700
$0$200K$67K
31.1%
Biological scientists
11,200
$0$200K$60K
2.0%
Chemists and materials scientists
9,400
$0$200K$67K
1.5%
Mathematicians and statisticians
5,000
$0$200K$77K
1.6%
Physical scientists (specialized areas)
2,000
$0$200K$69K
13.8%
No occupation
5.8%
Read about medical scientists, except epidemiologists
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Medical scientists typically do the following:

  • Design and conduct studies that investigate both human diseases and methods to prevent and treat them
  • Prepare and analyze medical samples and data to investigate causes and treatment of toxicity, pathogens, or chronic diseases
  • Standardize drug potency, doses, and methods to allow for the mass manufacturing and distribution of drugs and medicinal compounds
  • Create and test medical devices
  • Develop programs that improve health outcomes, in partnership with health departments, industry personnel, and physicians
  • Write research grant proposals and apply for funding from government agencies and private funding sources
  • Follow procedures to avoid contamination and maintain safety

Many medical scientists form hypotheses and develop experiments, with little supervision. They often lead teams of technicians and, sometimes, students, who perform support tasks. For example, a medical scientist working in a university laboratory may have undergraduate assistants take measurements and make observations for the scientist’s research.

Medical scientists study the causes of diseases and other health problems. For example, a medical scientist who does cancer research might put together a combination of drugs that could slow the cancer’s progress. A clinical trial may be done to test the drugs. A medical scientist may work with licensed physicians to test the new combination on patients who are willing to participate in the study.

In a clinical trial, patients agree to help determine if a particular drug, a combination of drugs, or some other medical intervention works. Without knowing which group they are in, patients in a drug-related clinical trial receive either the trial drug or a placebo—a pill or injection that looks like the trial drug but does not actually contain the drug.

Medical scientists analyze the data from all of the patients in the clinical trial, to see how the trial drug performed. They compare the results with those obtained from the control group that took the placebo, and they analyze the attributes of the participants. After they complete their analysis, medical scientists may write about and publish their findings.

Medical scientists do research both to develop new treatments and to try to prevent health problems. For example, they may study the link between smoking and lung cancer or between diet and diabetes.

Medical scientists who work in private industry usually have to research the topics that benefit their company the most, rather than investigate their own interests. Although they may not have the pressure of writing grant proposals to get money for their research, they may have to explain their research plans to nonscientist managers or executives.

Medical scientists usually specialize in an area of research within the broad area of understanding and improving human health. Medical scientists may engage in basic and translational research that seeks to improve the understanding of, or strategies for, improving health. They may also choose to engage in clinical research that studies specific experimental treatments.

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of medical scientists, except epidemiologists? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Communication skills
Communication is critical, because medical scientists must be able to explain their conclusions. In addition, medical scientists write grant proposals, because grants often are required to fund their research.
Critical-thinking skills
Medical scientists must use their expertise to determine the best method for solving a specific research question.
Data-analysis skills
Medical scientists use statistical techniques, so that they can properly quantify and analyze health research questions.
Decisionmaking skills
Medical scientists must determine what research questions to ask, how best to investigate the questions, and what data will best answer the questions.
Observation skills
Medical scientists conduct experiments that require precise observation of samples and other health-related data. Any mistake could lead to inconclusive or misleading results.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for medical scientists, except epidemiologists
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for medical scientists, except epidemiologists was higher than 87% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $85KAll jobs' median $39K$81K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for medical scientists, except epidemiologists are anticipated to grow by 13% over the next decade; only 16% of jobs are predicted to grow more.

The projected employment for medical scientists, except epidemiologists is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

2000201020202030050,000100,000150,000200,000
Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
Employment
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most medical scientists, except epidemiologists? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as medical scientists, except epidemiologists. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

One important factor in the differences between ACS and BLS data is that the ACS numbers are for all epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, comprised of all specialities listed in the menu bar, and you can choose to view the BLS at the specialty or full career level.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS for this specialty
Number of Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.01.02.03.04.0
Salary
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where medical scientists, except epidemiologists earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for epidemiologists and medical/life scientists.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information. The ACS salaries are for all epidemiologists and medical/life scientists, which combines the specialities from which you can choose at the top of the page.

Choose the metric to review
In-state comparisions
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS for this specialty
Median salary ratio: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists to all workers (BLS for this specialty)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which medical scientists, except epidemiologists earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.01.02.03.0
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Epidemiologists and Medical/Life Scientists (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?
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