Veterinarians
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Overview
Veterinarians care for the health of animals and work to improve public health. They diagnose, treat, and research medical conditions and diseases of pets, livestock, and other animals.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for veterinarians are expected to grow by 19%, and should have about 4,600 job openings a year.
Safety from automation
Veterinarians are less likely to be automated than 81% of other careers.
Workforce size
Veterinarians, with 79,600 workers, form a larger workforce than 60% of careers.
Education
About 99% of veterinarians have a graduate-level education, and 100% have at least a bachelor's degree.
Education attained by veterinarians
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Context: workers with graduate degrees
More veterinarians have graduate degrees than 99% of other careeers.
Salaries
The median (middle) salary for veterinarians is higher than 90% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most veterinarians.
This job's median $94KAll jobs' median $39K$94K$38K20142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Context: Median Salary
Gender
Women account for 60% of veterinarians -- that's a larger percentage than 76% of other jobs.
Gender of veterinarians
Men
Women
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For veterinarians, the median men's salary was 14% more the median woman's salary.
Race/Origin
About 7% of veterinarians are minority, and 7% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of veterinarians
White
Black
Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Asian
American Indian
Multiracial
Other
Context: Foreign-born workers (7%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Veterinarians per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 41% of veterinarians, and 50% have company-sponsored health insurance (21% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for veterinarians
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
Top college degrees
Here are the top college degrees held by the 100% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.
The downside
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of veterinarians who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections (92%)
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety (87%)
  • Consequence of Error (86%)
  • Exposed to Contaminants (75%)
  • Time Pressure (68%)
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings (67%)
  • Exposed to Radiation (59%)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations (48%)
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People (38%)
SOURCES:24.0 O*NET
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do veterinarians earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for veterinarians, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for veterinarians compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for veterinarians (BLS Salary Data)
$94K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
$94K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. We first show the full salary distribution for all veterinarians, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for veterinarians compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for veterinarians (ACS Salary Data)
$84K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
$84K$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where veterinarians work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Veterinarians (ACS)
Private for-profit (58.4%)
Private not-for-profit (3.9%)
Local government (0.6%)
State government (3.4%)
Federal government (2.1%)
Self-employed incorporated (22.0%)
Self-employed not incorporated (9.5%)
Working without pay (0.1%)
Distribution: Salaries of veterinarians by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses.
$84K$84K$74K$89K$104K$68K$82K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000Self-employed not incorporatedSelf-employed incorporatedFederal governmentState governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Distribution: Salaries of veterinarians by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS.
$94K$89K$98K$94K$85K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000Federal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivateAll
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for veterinarians

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$94K$62K$90K$87K$101K$87K$82K$94K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
02K4K6K8K10K12KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Veterinarians and gender

With 60% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 76% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
60%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Gender of Veterinarians
Men (40%)
Women (60%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 20%. The situation is a little better for veterinarians, with the median salary for men 14% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

$81K$92K$0$50K$100K$150K$200KWomenMen
Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Veterinarians have one of the middle percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase for the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job higher than that for 40% of other jobs.

14%0%20%40%60%80%100%

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race/Origin
Race and origin of veterinarians

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a smaller percentage of minority veterinarians than for 98% of other careers. As with minority workers, there is also a smaller percentage of foreign-born workers in this career than in most other careers.

Race/origin of veterinarians
White (92% )
Asian (3% )
Multiracial (2% )
Black (2% )
Other (1% )
Hispanic (0% )
American Indian (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
7%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
7%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Distribution: Salaries for veterinarians by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

$73K$83K$92K$0$50K$100K$150KMultiracialWhiteOther
Distribution: Salaries for veterinarians by nativity
$83K$92K$0$50K$100K$150KAll native citizensAll foreign-born

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by veterinarians

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), veterinarians typically hold a doctoral or professional degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as veterinarians as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for veterinarians.

Education attained by veterinarians
None
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Doctorate
Details: Education and training recommended for veterinarians

Veterinarians must complete a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM or VMD) degree at an accredited college of veterinary medicine. There are currently 30 colleges with accredited programs in the United States. A veterinary medicine program generally takes 4 years to complete and includes classroom, laboratory, and clinical components.

Most applicants to veterinary school have a bachelor’s degree. Veterinary medical colleges typically require applicants to have taken many science classes, including biology, chemistry, anatomy, physiology, zoology, microbiology, and animal science. Most programs also require math, humanities, and social science courses.

Admission to veterinary programs is competitive.

In veterinary medicine programs, students take courses on animal anatomy and physiology, as well as disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Most programs include 3 years of classroom, laboratory, and clinical work. Students typically spend the final year of the 4-year program doing clinical rotations in a veterinary medical center or hospital.

Some veterinary medical colleges weigh experience heavily during the admissions process. Formal experience, such as previous work with veterinarians or scientists in clinics, agribusiness, research, or some area of health science, is particularly advantageous. Less formal experience, such as working with animals on a farm, at a stable, or in an animal shelter, can also be helpful.

Although graduates of a veterinary program can begin practicing as soon as they receive their license, some veterinarians pursue further education and training. Some new veterinary graduates enter internship or residency programs to gain specialized experience.

Details: Licensing and certification recommended for veterinarians

Veterinarians must be licensed in order to practice in the United States. Licensing requirements vary by state, but all states require prospective veterinarians to complete an accredited veterinary program and to pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination. Veterinarians working for the state or federal government may not be required to have a state license, because each agency has different requirements.

Most states not only require the national exam but also a state exam that covers state laws and regulations. Few states accept licenses from other states, so veterinarians who want to be licensed in another state usually must take that state’s exam.

The American Veterinary Medical Association recognizes certification in 41 specialties, such as surgery, microbiology, and internal medicine. Although certification is not required for veterinarians, it can show exceptional skill and expertise in a particular field.

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for veterinarians? Below we see the distribution of veterinarians salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as veterinarians, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$96K$84K$84K$0$50K$100K$150KHigh School (0%)Professional Deg/Doct (72%)Doctorate (25%)
Bachelor's degree pathways
College majors held by veterinarians

This table shows the college majors held by people working as veterinarians. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

Degree
Select any title to learn more about that degree
Percentage of Veterinarians with this degree
Salary for all majors
Salary distribution (across jobs). Showing 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
Final education level of all people with this major
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Gender of people this bachelor's degree
Men
Women
The link between degrees and careers
The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as veterinarians, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by veterinarians given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

This job
Top 10 majors
Each major's top ten jobs
Physicians and surgeonsPostsecondary teachersManagers (specialized areas)Elementary and middle school teachersDentistsRegistered nursesPhysical scientists (specialized areas)Epidemiologists and Medical/Life ScientistsClinical laboratory technologists and techniciansPharmacistsVeterinariansAgricultural ManagersHealth Practitioner Support Technologists and TechniciansWholesale and manufacturing sales representativesAgricultural workers (specialized areas)Nonfarm animal caretakersBiological scientistsMedical and health services managersNurse PractitionersNursing, psychiatric, and home health aidesNurse anesthetistsSocial workersFirst-line supervisors of retail sales workersAccountants and auditorsSecondary school teachersDietitians and nutritionistsCounselorsTherapists (specialized areas)PsychologistsLawyers, judges, and magistratesHuman resources workersEducation administratorsChemists and materials scientistsChief executives and legislatorsPhysician assistantsChiropractorsFirst-line supervisors of non-retail sales workersRetail salespersonsBiologyAnimal SciencesZoologyNursingMultidisciplinary or GeneralScienceHealth/Medical SpecializedPreparationPsychologyChemistryHealth and MedicalPreparatory ProgramsGeneral AgricultureAll other degrees
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for veterinarians

What jobs will most veterinarians hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of veterinarians reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list? For veterinarians, there isn't a lot of action in this chart! This isn't a career that invites much moving around.

VeterinariansHealth Practitioner Support Technologists and TechniciansNonfarm animal caretakersRegistered nurses
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for veterinarians

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies the one job which was held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as veterinarians as well as 1% of respondents after working as veterinarians. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for veterinarians
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Nonfarm animal caretakers
48,500
$0$200K$24K
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for veterinarians: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as veterinarians? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of veterinarians surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Prior careers for veterinarians
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Percentage Transitioning
What percentage worked in this job the previous year?
Managers (specialized areas)
84,000
$0$200K$72K
2.0%
Nonfarm animal caretakers
48,500
$0$200K$24K
1.2%
Physicians and surgeons
28,600
$0$200K$76K
2.7%
Veterinarians
4,600
$0$200K$84K
85.8%
No occupation
1.4%
Read about veterinarians
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Veterinarians typically do the following:

  • Examine animals to diagnose their health problems
  • Treat and dress wounds
  • Perform surgery on animals
  • Test for and vaccinate against diseases
  • Operate medical equipment, such as x-ray machines
  • Advise animal owners about general care, medical conditions, and treatments
  • Prescribe medication
  • Euthanize animals

Veterinarians treat the injuries and illnesses of pets and other animals with a variety of medical equipment, including surgical tools and x-ray and ultrasound machines. They provide treatment for animals that is similar to the services a physician provides to treat humans.

The following are examples of types of veterinarians:

Companion animal veterinarians treat pets and generally work in private clinics and hospitals. They most often care for cats and dogs, but also treat other pets, such as birds, ferrets, and rabbits. These veterinarians diagnose and provide treatment for animal health problems; consult with animal owners about preventive healthcare; and carry out medical and surgical procedures, such as vaccinations, dental work, and setting fractures.

Food animal veterinarians work with farm animals such as pigs, cattle, and sheep, which are raised to be food sources. They spend much of their time at farms and ranches treating illnesses and injuries and testing for and vaccinating against disease. They may advise farm owners or managers about feeding, housing, and general health practices.

Food safety and inspection veterinarians inspect and test livestock and animal products for major animal diseases, provide vaccines to treat animals, enhance animal welfare, conduct research to improve animal health, and enforce government food safety regulations. They design and administer animal and public health programs for the prevention and control of diseases transmissible among animals and between animals and people.

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of veterinarians? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Compassion
Veterinarians must be compassionate when working with animals and their owners. They must treat animals with kindness and respect, and must be sensitive when dealing with the animal owners.
Communication skills
Strong communication skills are essential for veterinarians, who must be able to discuss their recommendations and explain treatment options to animal owners and give instructions to their staff.
Decisionmaking skills
Veterinarians must decide the correct method for treating the injuries and illnesses of animals.
Manual dexterity
Manual dexterity is important for veterinarians, because they must control their hand movements and be precise when treating injuries and performing surgery.
Problem-solving skills
Veterinarians need strong problem-solving skills because they must figure out what is ailing animals. Those who test animals to determine the effects of drug therapies also need excellent diagnostic skills.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for veterinarians
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for veterinarians was higher than 90% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $94KAll jobs' median $39K$88K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K$200K
Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for veterinarians are anticipated to grow by 19% over the next decade; only 7% of jobs are predicted to grow more.

The projected employment for veterinarians is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

2000201020202030020,00040,00060,00080,000100,000
Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
Employment
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most veterinarians? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as veterinarians. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS
Number of Veterinarians per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.00.20.40.60.81.0
Salary
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where veterinarians earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for veterinarians compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for veterinarians.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information.

Choose the metric to review
In-state comparisions
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS
Median salary ratio: Veterinarians to all workers (BLS)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which veterinarians earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
0.01.02.03.04.0
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Veterinarians (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?
Choose the similarity measure to compare careers
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