Overview

Predicted employment growth

Over the next decade, jobs for statisticians are expected
to grow by 34%, and
should have about 4,400 job openings a year.

Safety from automation

Statisticians are less likely to be automated than 70% of other careers.

Workforce size

Statisticians, with 37,200 workers,
are near the middle of all careers in the number employed.

Education

About 58% of mathematicians and statisticians have a graduate-level education, and 93% have at least a bachelor's degree.

Education attained by mathematicians and statisticians

High School

Some College

Bachelor's Degree

Master's Degree

Doctorate

Context: workers with graduate degrees

More mathematicians and statisticians have graduate degrees than 94% of other careeers.

Salaries

The median (middle) salary for statisticians is higher than 88% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most statisticians.

Context: Median Salary

Gender

Women account for 48% of mathematicians and statisticians -- that's a larger percentage than 62% of other jobs.

Gender of mathematicians and statisticians

Men

Women

Context: Salary inequity

For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For mathematicians and statisticians, the median men's salary was 11% more the median woman's salary.

SOURCES:2017 ACS microdata

Race/Origin

About 32% of mathematicians and statisticians are minority, and 29% are foreign-born.

Race/origin of mathematicians and statisticians

White

Black

Pacific Islander

Hispanic

Asian

American Indian

Multiracial

Other

Context: Foreign-born workers (29%)

Where are the most jobs?

We ranked the number of jobs in Statisticians per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.

Job benefits

Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 71% of mathematicians and statisticians, and 77% have company-sponsored health insurance (19% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).

Employer-provided health coverage for mathematicians and statisticians

100% premiums covered

Partial premiums covered

Plan with no cost sharing

No health insurance

SOURCES:2013-2019 CPS

Top college degrees

Here are the top college degrees held by the 94% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.

SOURCES:2017 ACS microdata

The downside

Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of statisticians who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.

- Time Pressure (53%)

SOURCES:24.0 O*NET

Salary and diversity

Salary overview

What do mathematicians and statisticians earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you
can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data
here:
the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to
classify their workforce and to report salaries using the
SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the
American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to
classify their jobs using the broad classifications that *ididio*
uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries.
For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. In particular, the ACS data is reported for the larger career group **mathematicians and statisticians**, which combines the data
for 4 careers, including **statisticians**. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data is classified by SOC specialty, and excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for statisticians, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for statisticians compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.

Distribution: Salaries for statisticians (BLS Salary Data)

Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)

We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. Additionally, we only have ACS survey data for the larger career category and not for the specialty level. We first show the full salary distribution for all mathematicians and statisticians, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for mathematicians and statisticians compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.

Distribution: Salaries for mathematicians and statisticians (ACS Salary Data)

Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)

Employers and salary

A look at employers and corresponding salaries

The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where statisticians work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.

Employers of Mathematicians and statisticians (ACS)

Private for-profit (60.1%)

Private not-for-profit (14.5%)

Local government (3.1%)

State government (7.9%)

Federal government (13.1%)

Self-employed incorporated (0.7%)

Self-employed not incorporated (0.5%)

Working without pay (0.1%)

Distribution: Salaries of mathematicians and statisticians by type of employer (ACS data)

Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses. These salaries were reported for the larger career group of mathematicians and statisticians, which combines the 4 specialties for this career.

Distribution: Salaries of statisticians by type of employer (BLS data)

Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS. Remember that the BLS salaries are for
the specialty statisticians, and may differ signficantly from the ACS salary estimates which combine several career specialties.

Age and career advancement

Salary growth for mathematicians and statisticians

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

SOURCES:2017 ACS microdata

Gender and Equity

Mathematicians and statisticians and gender

With 48% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 62% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce

Gender of Mathematicians and statisticians

Men (52%)

Women (48%)

Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 20%. The situation is a little better for mathematicians and statisticians, with the median salary for men 11% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Mathematicians and statisticians have one of the smaller percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job lower than that for 67% of other jobs.

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

SOURCES:2017 ACS microdata

Race/Origin

Race and origin of mathematicians and statisticians

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a higher percentage of minority mathematicians and statisticians than for 92% of other careers. This career hires a larger percentage of foreign-born workers than most other careers.

Race/origin of mathematicians and statisticians

White (67% )

Asian (23% )

Black (6% )

Multiracial (2% )

Other (1% )

Pacific Islander (0% )

Hispanic (0% )

American Indian (0% )

Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce

Context: Representation of foreign-born workers

Distribution: Salaries for mathematicians and statisticians by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

Distribution: Salaries for mathematicians and statisticians by nativity

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career

Education requirements and salary

Education attained by statisticians

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), statisticians typically hold a master's degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as mathematicians and statisticians as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for mathematicians and statisticians.

Education attained by mathematicians and statisticians

None

High School

Some College

Associate's Degree

Bachelor's Degree

Master's Degree

Professional Deg/Doct

Doctorate

Details: Education and training recommended for statisticians

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for mathematicians and statisticians? Below we see the distribution of mathematicians and statisticians salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as mathematicians and statisticians, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

Bachelor's degree pathways

College majors held by mathematicians and statisticians

This table shows the college majors held by people working as mathematicians and statisticians. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

The link between degrees and careers

The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as mathematicians and statisticians, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by mathematicians and statisticians given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

This job

Top 10 majors

Each major's top ten jobs

SOURCES:2017 ACS microdata

Switching Careers

Most common new jobs

The most common next careers for mathematicians and statisticians

What jobs will most mathematicians and statisticians hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of mathematicians and statisticians reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list?

SOURCES:2013-2019 CPS

Lateral career moves

Lateral job transitions for mathematicians and statisticians

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies all 7 jobs which were held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as mathematicians and statisticians as well as 1% of respondents after working as mathematicians and statisticians. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Full prior and next career listings

Prior and next careers for mathematicians and statisticians: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as mathematicians and statisticians? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of mathematicians and statisticians surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view

Prior jobs

Next jobs

Read about statisticians

Responsibilities and activities

Responsibilities and activities

Mathematicians and statisticians typically do the following:

- Develop new mathematical rules, theories, and concepts in areas such as algebra and geometry
- Decide what data are needed to answer specific questions or problems
- Apply mathematical theories and techniques to solve practical problems in business, engineering, the sciences, and other fields
- Design surveys, experiments, or opinion polls to collect data
- Develop mathematical or statistical models to analyze data
- Interpret data and report conclusions drawn from their analyses
- Use data analysis to support and improve business decisions

Mathematicians and statisticians apply theories and techniques, such as mathematical or statistical modeling, to solve practical problems. Typically, they work with individuals in other occupations to solve these problems. For example, they may work with __chemists__, __materials scientists__, and __chemical engineers__ to analyze the effectiveness of new drugs. Others may work with __industrial designers__ to study the aerodynamic characteristics of new automobiles.

To work on these problems, mathematicians and statisticians must first collect data. Statisticians design surveys, questionnaires, experiments, and opinion polls to collect the data they need. Surveys may be mailed, conducted over the phone, collected online, or gathered through some other means.

Some surveys, such as the U.S. census, include data from nearly everyone. For most surveys and opinion polls, however, statisticians use a sampling method to collect data from some people in a particular group. Statisticians determine the type and size of the sample to be surveyed or polled.

After the data are collected, mathematicians and statisticians use specialized statistical software to analyze data. In their analyses, mathematicians and statisticians identify trends and relationships within the data. They also conduct tests to determine the dataâ€™s validity and to account for high survey nonresponse rates or sampling error. Some may help create new software to analyze data more accurately and efficiently.

Mathematicians and statisticians present the findings from their analyses and discuss the dataâ€™s limitations in order to prevent inaccurate conclusions from being drawn. They may present written reports, tables, charts, and graphs to other team members and to clients.

Mathematicians and statisticians work in many fields, such as education, marketing, psychology, sports, or any other field that requires the collection and analysis of data. In particular, government, healthcare, and research and development companies employ many statisticians.

** Government.** Mathematicians and statisticians working in government develop and analyze surveys that collect a variety of data, including unemployment rates, wages, and other estimates pertaining to jobs and workers. Others help to figure out the average level of pesticides in drinking water, the number of endangered species living in a particular area, or the number of people who have a certain disease.

** Healthcare. **Statisticians known as biostatisticians or biometricians work in pharmaceutical companies, public health agencies, or hospitals. They may design studies to test whether drugs successfully treat diseases or medical conditions. They may also help identify the sources of outbreaks of illnesses in humans and animals.

** Research and development.** Mathematicians and statisticians design experiments for product testing and development. For instance, they may help design experiments to see how car engines perform when exposed to extreme weather conditions. Some may analyze consumer data to help develop marketing strategies and prices for consumer goods.

** Colleges and universities.** Mathematicians and statisticians working in a postsecondary education institution may study theoretical or abstract concepts in mathematics or statistics. They identify, research, and resolve unexplained issues in mathematics and are concerned primarily with exploring new mathematical or statistical theories to increase knowledge and understanding about the field.

However, the mathematician occupation is a relatively small one, and many people with a degree in mathematics or who develop mathematical theories and models may not be formally known as mathematicians. Instead, they work in related fields and professions. In the computer systems design and related services industries, for example, they may be known as __computer programmers__ or __systems analysts__. In finance, they may be known as *quantitative analysts*. Other industries may refer to them as *data scientists* or *data analysts*.

__Computer and information research scientists__, __physicists and astronomers__, __economists__, __actuaries__, __operations research analysts__, __engineers__, and many other occupations also use mathematics extensively.

Many people with a Ph.D. in mathematics, particularly theoretical mathematics, work as __postsecondary teachers__ in education institutions. They usually have a mix of teaching and research responsibilities. Some may conduct individual research or collaborate with other professors or mathematicians. Collaborators may work together at the same institution or from different locations.

Personality and skills

Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of statisticians? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Analytical skills

Mathematicians and statisticians use mathematical techniques and models to analyze large amounts of data. They must determine the appropriate software packages and understand computer programming languages to design and develop new techniques and models. They must also be precise and accurate in their analysis.

Communication skills

Mathematicians and statisticians must interact with, and propose solutions to, people who may not have extensive knowledge of mathematics.

Math skills

Mathematicians and statisticians use statistics, calculus, and linear algebra to develop their models and analyses.

Problem-solving skills

Mathematicians and statisticians must devise new solutions to problems encountered by scientists or engineers.

Trends in employment

Salary trends

Distribution and trends: Salaries for statisticians

Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view

Adjusted for inflation

Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for statisticians was higher than 88% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

Projected versus actual employment

Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for statisticians are anticipated to grow by 34% over the next decade; only 1% of jobs are predicted to grow more.

The projected employment for statisticians is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

Employment counts

Actual measured employment

BLS 10-year predictions

Variation by state

Employment

State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most statisticians? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as statisticians. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

One important factor in the differences between ACS and BLS data is that the ACS numbers are for all mathematicians and statisticians, comprised of all specialities listed in the menu bar, and you can choose to view the BLS at the specialty or full career level.

Choose the metric to review

Jobs per 1000 working

Number of jobs

Use this data source

BLS for this specialty

Number of Statisticians per 1,000 workers (BLS)

Select a state to see local area details

Salary

Salaries by state

Let's get a feel for where statisticians earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...

Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

**In-state comparisons**: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for mathematicians and statisticians compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or**Median salary:**the unaltered median salaries for mathematicians and statisticians.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information. The ACS salaries are for all mathematicians and statisticians, which combines the specialities from which you can choose at the top of the page.

Choose the metric to review

In-state comparisions

Median salary

Use this data source

BLS for this specialty

Median salary ratio: Statisticians to all workers (BLS for this specialty)

The darkest shading corresponds to states in which statisticians earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.

Select a state to see local area details

Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Mathematicians and statisticians (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

**Interests**: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?**Environment**: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?**Knowledge**: What do you need to know the most about?**Physical Abilities**: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?

Choose the similarity measure to compare careers

Interests

Environment

Knowledge

Physical Abilities

Jobs that are similar by Interests and Salary (All education levels)

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All education levels

Filter for any of these broad categories

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