Recreational therapists
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Overview
Recreational therapists plan, direct, and coordinate recreation-based treatment programs for people with disabilities, injuries, or illnesses. These therapists use a variety of modalities, including arts and crafts; drama, music, and dance; sports and games; aquatics; and community outings to help maintain or improve a patient’s physical, social, and emotional well-being.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for recreational therapists are expected to grow by 7%, and should have about 1,200 job openings a year.
Safety from automation
Recreational therapists are less likely to be automated than 96% of other careers.
Workforce size
Recreational therapists, with 19,200 workers, form a smaller workforce than 73% of careers.
Education
About 80% of recreational therapists have at least a bachelor's degree.
Education attained by recreational therapists
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Context: workers with bachelor's degrees
More recreational therapists have bachelor's degrees than 86% of other careeers.
Salaries
The median (middle) salary for 51% of all other jobs is higher than the middle salary for recreational therapists. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most recreational therapists.
This job's median $48KAll jobs' median $39K$47K$38K20142015201620172018$0$20K$40K$60K$80K
Context: Median Salary
Gender
Women account for 72% of recreational therapists -- that's a larger percentage than 85% of other jobs.
Gender of recreational therapists
Men
Women
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For recreational therapists, the median men's salary was 7% more the median woman's salary.
Race/Origin
About 20% of recreational therapists are minority, and 8% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of recreational therapists
White
Black
Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Asian
American Indian
Multiracial
Other
Context: Foreign-born workers (8%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Recreational Therapists per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
AKMEVTNHWAIDMTNDMNMINYMARIORUTWYSDIAWIINOHPANJCTCANVCONEMOILKYWVVAMDDEAZNMKSARTNNCSCDCOKLAMSALGAHITXFLPR
Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 66% of recreational therapists, and 56% have company-sponsored health insurance (54% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for recreational therapists
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
Top college degrees
Here are the top college degrees held by the 79% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.
The downside
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of recreational therapists who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People (58%)
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections (56%)
  • Time Pressure (56%)
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety (45%)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations (44%)
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People (39%)
SOURCES:24.0 O*NET
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do recreational therapists earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for recreational therapists, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for recreational therapists compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for recreational therapists (BLS Salary Data)
$48K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
$48K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. We first show the full salary distribution for all recreational therapists, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for recreational therapists compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for recreational therapists (ACS Salary Data)
$42K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
$42K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120K
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where recreational therapists work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Recreational therapists (ACS)
Private for-profit (34.2%)
Private not-for-profit (28.0%)
Local government (9.9%)
State government (19.3%)
Federal government (8.3%)
Self-employed incorporated (0.0%)
Self-employed not incorporated (0.2%)
Working without pay (0.0%)
Distribution: Salaries of recreational therapists by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses.
$42K$37K$55K$45K$42K$66K$0$20,000$40,000$60,000$80,000$100,000Federal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Distribution: Salaries of recreational therapists by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS.
$48K$70K$49K$46K$51K$0$20,000$40,000$60,000$80,000$100,000Federal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivateAll
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for recreational therapists

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$39K$47K$46K$50K$56K$37K$46K$0$20K$40K$60K$80KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
05001K2K2KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Recreational therapists and gender

With 72% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 85% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
72%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Gender of Recreational therapists
Men (28%)
Women (72%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 20%. The situation is a little better for recreational therapists, with the median salary for men 7% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

$42K$44K$0$20K$40K$60K$80KWomenMen
Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Recreational therapists have one of the smaller percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job lower than that for 80% of other jobs.

7%0%20%40%60%80%100%

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race/Origin
Race and origin of recreational therapists

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. The percentage of minority recreational therapists falls in about the middle of all careers' percentages. There is a smaller percentage of foreign-born workers in this career than in most other careers.

Race/origin of recreational therapists
White (78% )
Black (13% )
Asian (4% )
Other (2% )
Multiracial (2% )
Hispanic (0% )
American Indian (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
20%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
8%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Distribution: Salaries for recreational therapists by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

$42K$45K$47K$0$20K$40K$60K$80KWhiteBlackAsian
Distribution: Salaries for recreational therapists by nativity
$42K$46K$0$20K$40K$60K$80KAll native citizensAll foreign-born

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by recreational therapists

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), recreational therapists typically hold a bachelor's degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as recreational therapists as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for recreational therapists.

Education attained by recreational therapists
None
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Doctorate
Details: Education and training recommended for recreational therapists

Recreational therapists typically need a bachelor’s degree, usually in recreational therapy or a related field such as recreation and leisure studies.

Recreational therapy programs include courses in assessment, human anatomy, medical and psychiatric terminology, characteristics of illnesses and disabilities, and the use of assistive devices and technology. Bachelor’s degree programs usually include an internship.

Details: Licensing and certification recommended for recreational therapists

Most employers prefer to hire certified recreational therapists. The NCTRC offers the Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist (CTRS) credential. Candidates may qualify for certification through one of three pathways. The first option requires a bachelor’s degree in recreational therapy, completion of a supervised internship of at least 560 hours, and passing an exam. The other options also require passing an exam, but allow candidates with a bachelor’s degree in an unrelated subject to qualify with various combinations of education and work experience. In order to maintain certification, therapists must either pass an exam or complete work experience and continuing education requirements every 5 years.

The NCTRC also offers specialty certification in five areas of practice: behavioral health, community inclusion services, developmental disabilities, geriatrics, and physical medicine/rehabilitation. Therapists also may earn certificates from other organizations to show proficiency in specific therapy techniques, such as aquatic therapy or aromatherapy.

As of 2017, only a small number of states require licensure or otherwise regulate the work of recreational therapists. For specific requirements, contact the state’s medical board.

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for recreational therapists? Below we see the distribution of recreational therapists salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as recreational therapists, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$40K$43K$56K$0$20K$40K$60K$80KAssociate's Degree (4%)Bachelor's Degree (66%)Master's Degree (13%)
Bachelor's degree pathways
College majors held by recreational therapists

This table shows the college majors held by people working as recreational therapists. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

Degree
Select any title to learn more about that degree
Percentage of Recreational therapists with this degree
Salary for all majors
Salary distribution (across jobs). Showing 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
Final education level of all people with this major
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Gender of people this bachelor's degree
Men
Women
5.8%
$0$200K$53K
3.0%
$0$200K$54K
2.8%
$0$200K$51K
1.7%
$0$200K$63K
1.7%
$0$200K$48K
1.7%
$0$200K$51K
1.4%
$0$200K$73K
1.4%
$0$200K$70K
0.7%
$0$200K$73K
0.7%
$0$200K$55K
The link between degrees and careers
The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as recreational therapists, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by recreational therapists given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

This job
Top 10 majors
Each major's top ten jobs
Physical therapistsOccupational therapistsHealthcare practitioners and technical occupations (specialized areas)Therapists (specialized areas)Medical and health services managersPhysicians and surgeonsPhysician assistantsRegistered nursesElementary and middle school teachersPostsecondary teachersManagers (specialized areas)Recreation and fitness workersSecondary school teachersAthletes, coaches, umpires, and related workersWholesale and manufacturing sales representativesFirst-line supervisors of retail sales workersEducation administratorsCounselorsSocial workersPsychologistsLawyers, judges, and magistratesHuman resources workersSecretaries and administrative assistantsSocial and community service managersSpecial Education TeachersPreschool and kindergarten teachersTeachers and instructors (specialized areas)Accountants and auditorsChief executives and legislatorsFinancial managersFirst-line supervisors of non-retail sales workersMarketing and sales managersRetail salespersonsFirst-line supervisors of office and administrative support workersMusicians, singers, and related workersClergyTreatment TherapyProfessionsPhysical Fitness, Parks,Recreation, and LeisurePsychologySociologyGeneral EducationMultidisciplinary or GeneralScienceGeneral BusinessSocial WorkMusicPhysical and HealthEducation TeachingAll other degrees
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for recreational therapists

What jobs will most recreational therapists hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of recreational therapists reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list?

Recreational therapistsRecreation and fitness workersTherapists (specialized areas)Occupational therapistsAgricultural ManagersFinancial analystsInformation and record clerksProduction, planning, and expediting clerksPreschool and kindergarten teachersOccupational Therapy Assistants and AidesCounselorsNursing, psychiatric, and home health aidesHealthcare practitioners and technical occupations (specialized areas)
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for recreational therapists

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies all 3 jobs which were held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as recreational therapists as well as 1% of respondents after working as recreational therapists. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for recreational therapists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Recreation and fitness workers
131,400
$0$200K$30K
Counselors
96,100
$0$200K$44K
Therapists (specialized areas)
3,000
$0$200K$47K
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for recreational therapists: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as recreational therapists? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of recreational therapists surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Prior careers for recreational therapists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Percentage Transitioning
What percentage worked in this job the previous year?
Registered nurses
203,800
$0$200K$63K
9.9%
Elementary and middle school teachers
164,300
$0$200K$51K
3.1%
Recreation and fitness workers
131,400
$0$200K$30K
14.2%
Counselors
96,100
$0$200K$44K
4.7%
Plant and system operators
10,000
$0$200K$64K
7.5%
Therapists (specialized areas)
3,000
$0$200K$47K
6.3%
Recreational therapists
1,200
$0$200K$42K
51.8%
No occupation
2.6%
Read about recreational therapists
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Recreational therapists typically do the following:

  • Assess patients’ needs using observation, medical records, tests, and discussions with other healthcare professionals, patients’ families, and patients
  • Develop treatment plans and programs that meet patients’ needs and interests
  • Plan and implement interventions to support the client in meeting his or her goals
  • Engage patients in therapeutic activities, such as exercise, games, and community outings
  • Help patients learn social skills needed to become or remain independent
  • Teach patients about ways to cope with stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Document and analyze a patient’s progress
  • Evaluate interventions for effectiveness

Recreational therapists help people reduce depression, stress, and anxiety; recover basic physical and mental abilities; build confidence; and socialize effectively.

They use interventions, such as arts and crafts, dance, or sports, to help their patients. For example, a recreational therapist can help a patient who is paralyzed on one side of his or her body by teaching patients to adapt activities, such as casting a fishing rod or swinging a golf club, by using his or her functional side.

Therapists often treat specific groups of patients, such as children with cancer. Therapists may use activities such as kayaking or a ropes course to teach patients to stay active and to form social relationships.

Recreational therapists help people with disabilities integrate into the community by teaching them how to use community resources and recreational activities. For example, therapists may teach a patient who uses a wheelchair how to use public transportation.

Therapists may also provide interventions for patients who need help developing social and coping skills. For example, a therapist may use a therapy dog to help patients manage their depression or anxiety.

Therapists may work with physicians or surgeons, registered nurses, psychologists, social workers, physical therapists, teachers, or occupational therapists. Recreational therapists are different from recreation workers, who organize recreational activities primarily for enjoyment.

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of recreational therapists? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Compassion
Recreational therapists should be kind and empathetic when providing support to patients and their families. They may deal with patients who are in pain or under emotional stress.
Leadership skills
Recreational therapists must plan, develop, and implement intervention programs in an effective manner. They must be engaging and able to motivate patients to participate in a variety of therapeutic activities.
Listening skills
Recreational therapists must listen carefully to a patient’s problems and concerns. They can then determine an appropriate course of treatment for that patient.
Patience
Recreational therapists may work with some patients who require more time and special attention than others.
Resourcefulness
Recreational therapists customize treatment plans for patients. They must be both creative and flexible when adapting activities or programs to each patient’s needs.
Speaking skills
Recreational therapists need to communicate well with their patients. They must give clear directions during activities or instructions on healthy coping techniques.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for recreational therapists
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) for 51% of all other jobs were higher than the median (middle) salary for recreational therapists. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $48KAll jobs' median $39K$43K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$20K$40K$60K$80K
Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for recreational therapists are anticipated to grow by 7% over the next decade; 51% of jobs are projected to grow more.

The projected employment for recreational therapists is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

2000201020202030010,00020,00030,00040,000
Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
Employment
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most recreational therapists? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as recreational therapists. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS
Number of Recreational Therapists per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
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0.00.10.20.3
Salary
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where recreational therapists earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for recreational therapists compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for recreational therapists.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information.

Choose the metric to review
In-state comparisions
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS
Median salary ratio: Recreational Therapists to all workers (BLS)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which recreational therapists earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
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0.00.51.01.52.0
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Recreational therapists (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?
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