Speech-language pathologists
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Overview
Speech-language pathologists (sometimes called speech therapists) assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. Speech, language, and swallowing disorders result from a variety of causes, such as a stroke, brain injury, hearing loss, developmental delay, Parkinson’s disease, a cleft palate, or autism.
Predicted employment growth
Over the next decade, jobs for speech-language pathologists are expected to grow by 18%, and should have about 10,500 job openings a year.
Safety from automation
Speech-language pathologists are less likely to be automated than 91% of other careers.
Workforce size
Speech-language pathologists, with 145,100 workers, form a larger workforce than 73% of careers.
Education
About 86% of speech-language pathologists have a graduate-level education, and 97% have at least a bachelor's degree.
Education attained by speech-language pathologists
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Context: workers with graduate degrees
More speech-language pathologists have graduate degrees than 98% of other careeers.
Salaries
The median (middle) salary for speech-language pathologists is higher than 83% of all other jobs' middle salaries. The graph shows inflation-adjusted salaries for most speech-language pathologists.
This job's median $78KAll jobs' median $39K$77K$38K20142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K
Context: Median Salary
Gender
Women account for 95% of speech-language pathologists -- that's a larger percentage than 99% of other jobs.
Gender of speech-language pathologists
Men
Women
Context: Salary inequity
For each career, we compared the median (middle) men's salary to the median women's salary. For speech-language pathologists, the median men's salary was 9% more the median woman's salary.
Race/Origin
About 9% of speech-language pathologists are minority, and 5% are foreign-born.
Race/origin of speech-language pathologists
White
Black
Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Asian
American Indian
Multiracial
Other
Context: Foreign-born workers (5%)
Where are the most jobs?
We ranked the number of jobs in Speech-Language Pathologists per thousand workers in each state, DC, and Puerto Rico. The darker the blue, the higher the job density.
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Job benefits
Employer or union-sponsored pension plans are offered to 66% of speech-language pathologists, and 68% have company-sponsored health insurance (31% have dependents enrolled in their employer's health plan).
Employer-provided health coverage for speech-language pathologists
100% premiums covered
Partial premiums covered
Plan with no cost sharing
No health insurance
Top college degrees
Here are the top college degrees held by the 97% of people in this job who have at least a bachelor's degree. Some of degrees may link to multiple programs due to the way Census classifies college majors. Click on a program to learn more about career opportunities for people who major in that field.
The downside
Some jobs are more stressful than others, and some are just plain dangerous. The following list gives the percentages of speech-language pathologists who report hazardous or difficult situations typically occurring at least once a week.
  • Time Pressure (60%)
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections (48%)
  • Consequence of Error (31%)
SOURCES:24.0 O*NET
Salary and diversity
Salary overview
What do speech-language pathologists earn?

In this section, we want to give you a clear idea of what you can expect to earn in this career. We use two sources of data here: the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which asks employers to classify their workforce and to report salaries using the SOC-specialty level of reporting, and the American Community Survey (ACS), which asks people to classify their jobs using the broad classifications that ididio uses for career profiles, and to self-report their salaries. For some jobs, the differences in survey approaches between BLS and ACS can paint a very different end-picture. Whenever possible, we provide data from both sources.

The BLS-compiled salary data is reported by companies for their employees. This data excludes self-employed workers. We first show the distribution of salaries for speech-language pathologists, and then we show how the middle (median) salary for speech-language pathologists compares to the BLS-computed median salaries of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for speech-language pathologists (BLS Salary Data)
$78K$0$50K$100K$150K
Context: Median salaries across careers (BLS Salary Data)
$78K$0$50K$100K$150K
We compiled household data from the ACS to determine the salaries that people working at least 35 hours a week report themselves to earn. Unlike the BLS estimates, this data includes self-employed wages. We first show the full salary distribution for all speech-language pathologists, and then we show how the median (middle) salary for speech-language pathologists compares to the median ACS-reported salary of other careers.
Distribution: Salaries for speech-language pathologists (ACS Salary Data)
$62K$0$50K$100K$150K
Context: Median salaries across careers (ACS Salary Data)
$62K$0$50K$100K$150K
Employers and salary
A look at employers and corresponding salaries
The donut shares the break-down of workers by employer type, and following we show the salary distributions for these workers based on those employer types. For some careers, the salaries can be vastly different between private, government, and self-employment. As with our salary overview, we view the both the BLS economists' salary profiles and the household-reported salaries from ACS to get a thorough understanding of where speech-language pathologists work and for what salary. We have the great faith in the accuracy of economist-vetted BLS data; however, the BLS restrictions on which employers are surveyed skews the data a bit (read more in the sources), and the ACS responses provide different and useful categorizations of employers and salaries.
Employers of Speech-language pathologists (ACS)
Private for-profit (33.0%)
Private not-for-profit (15.3%)
Local government (32.8%)
State government (13.2%)
Federal government (0.9%)
Self-employed incorporated (2.1%)
Self-employed not incorporated (2.6%)
Working without pay (0.1%)
Distribution: Salaries of speech-language pathologists by type of employer (ACS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type calculated by aggregating individual household survey responses.
$62K$61K$60K$65K$61K$63K$75K$86K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000Self-employed not incorporatedSelf-employed incorporatedFederal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivate not-for-profitPrivate for-profitAll
Distribution: Salaries of speech-language pathologists by type of employer (BLS data)
Following are the salary distributions by employer type as reported by BLS based on large employer-focused surveys. We note that smaller employer categories are not included by BLS.
$78K$90K$69K$84K$72K$0$50,000$100,000$150,000Federal governmentState governmentLocal governmentPrivateAll
Age and career advancement
Salary growth for speech-language pathologists

The biggest take-away from the following two charts is the relationship between salary and experience that we can infer from age. Does this job seem to attract especially younger or older workers? Does it reward experience?

Take a minute a look at how much you might expect your salary to increase with each five years' experience, as well as how the numbers working in this career changes. We only provide this data when there are enough consistent ACS survey responses to allow a reasonable margin of error, so for some careers you will see gaps in our reporting of salary by age.

$61K$66K$71K$67K$72K$62K$54K$71K$31K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KSalary distribution20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64
05K10K15K20K25KNumber employed20-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-64

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Gender and Equity
Speech-language pathologists and gender

With 95% women, this occupation has a higher percentage of women than 99% of careers.

Context: Women in the workforce
95%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Gender of Speech-language pathologists
Men (5%)
Women (95%)
Distribution: Salaries by gender

As we'll illustrate at the bottom of this section, the median salary for all full-time male workers in the US exceeds the full-time median salary for women by 20%. The situation is a little better for speech-language pathologists, with the median salary for men 9% higher than the median salary for women. This chart shows you the salary range for most workers by gender.

$62K$68K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KWomenMen
Context: Salary Inequity

Nationwide there are twenty careers for which men do not have a higher median (middle) salary than women. The chart below shows the salary inequity, the percentage by which the median men's salary is higher than the median women's salary, for most jobs. Speech-language pathologists have one of the smaller percentage increases for men's salary, with the increase the men's median salary over the women's median salary in this job lower than that for 75% of other jobs.

9%0%20%40%60%80%100%

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Race/Origin
Race and origin of speech-language pathologists

The representation of minority and foreign-born workers is quite different between careers, and the relative pay of those workers also varies significantly between careers. There is a smaller percentage of minority speech-language pathologists than for 94% of other careers. As with minority workers, there is also a smaller percentage of foreign-born workers in this career than in most other careers.

Race/origin of speech-language pathologists
White (89% )
Black (5% )
Asian (2% )
Multiracial (1% )
Other (1% )
Hispanic (0% )
American Indian (0% )
Pacific Islander (0% )
Context: Representation of minorities in the workforce
9%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Context: Representation of foreign-born workers
5%0%20%40%60%80%100%
Distribution: Salaries for speech-language pathologists by race/origin

For some careers, there is a pay disparity depending on race or origin, though this is not prevalent. We calculate standard errors for all of our calculations, and when the error is high we do not show results. Therefore, for some jobs will have omitted race/origin categories.

$48K$61K$62K$64K$71K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KOtherMultiracialWhiteBlackAsian
Distribution: Salaries for speech-language pathologists by nativity
$62K$68K$0$20K$40K$60K$80K$100K$120KAll native citizensAll foreign-born

Our only sources for career data containing age, gender, or origin/race come from the Census Bureau. To provide these breakdowns, we have aggregated ACS person-level career survey responses by career, gender, race, and age. These graphics reflect the results of our aggregations, and are useful for identifying trends. A careful statistical study of the impact of age, gender, and race on salaries would correct for other factors that could be contributing to salary differences.

Pathways to this career
Education requirements and salary
Education attained by speech-language pathologists

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), speech-language pathologists typically hold a master's degree.

Sometimes the typical education identified by the BLS differs a bit from the reality of the how much education current workers actually have. The donut shows the education level held by people currently working as speech-language pathologists as reported in responses to the American Community Survey. Following, we investigate whether education level influences salary for speech-language pathologists.

Education attained by speech-language pathologists
None
High School
Some College
Associate's Degree
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Professional Deg/Doct
Doctorate
Details: Education and training recommended for speech-language pathologists

Speech-language pathologists typically need at least a master’s degree. Although master’s programs do not require a particular undergraduate degree for admission, certain courses must be taken before entering a program. Required courses vary by institution.

Graduate programs often include courses in speech and language development, age-specific speech disorders, alternative communication methods, and swallowing disorders. These programs also include supervised clinical experience.

The Council on Academic Accreditation (CAA), part of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, accredits education programs in speech-language pathology. Graduation from an accredited program is required for certification and, often, for state licensure.

Details: Licensing and certification recommended for speech-language pathologists

All states regulate speech-language pathologists. Most states require speech-language pathologists to be licensed; other states require registration. Licensure typically requires at least a master’s degree from an accredited program, supervised clinical experience, and passing an exam. For specific requirements, contact your state’s medical or health licensure board.

Speech-language pathologists can earn the Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology (CCC-SLP), offered by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Certification typically satisfies some or all of the requirements for state licensure and may be required by some employers. To earn CCC-SLP certification, candidates must graduate from an accredited program, pass an exam, and complete a fellowship under the supervision of a certified speech-language pathologist. To maintain the CCC-SLP credential, speech-language pathologists must complete 30 hours of continuing education every 3 years.

Speech-language pathologists who work in schools may need a specific teaching certification. For specific requirements, contact your state’s department of education or the private institution in which you are interested.

Speech language pathologists may choose to earn specialty certifications in child language, fluency, or swallowing. Candidates who hold the CCC-SLP, meet work experience requirements, and pass a specialty certification exam may use the title Board Certified Specialist. Three organizations offer specialty certifications: American Board of Child Language and Language Disorders, American Board of Fluency and Fluency Disorders, and American Board of Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders.

Distribution: Salary by education level

What level of education is truly needed for speech-language pathologists? Below we see the distribution of speech-language pathologists salaries based on the education attained. These comparisons are based on all survey responses by those who identified themselves as speech-language pathologists, and are not intended as a statistical analysis of salary differences that would correct for non-educational factors that could contribute to high or low earnings.

$29K$53K$63K$72K$79K$0$50K$100K$150KAssociate's Degree (1%)Bachelor's Degree (12%)Master's Degree (82%)Professional Deg/Doct (2%)Doctorate (1%)
Bachelor's degree pathways
College majors held by speech-language pathologists

This table shows the college majors held by people working as speech-language pathologists. Select any degree to see detailed information. We are able to connect careers to degrees using the American Community Survey (ACS), and their degrees are defined a little differently from our programs, which are based on standard CIP classifications. Therefore, selecting some degrees will lead to a selection of CIP-level programs from which to choose.

If you see "**" before the name of a degree/program, that means this field is one that the Department of Education believes is preparatory for this career. However, you can see from this list that those recommendations are far from your only path to this job!

Degree
Select any title to learn more about that degree
Percentage of Speech-language pathologists with this degree
Salary for all majors
Salary distribution (across jobs). Showing 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
Final education level of all people with this major
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Gender of people this bachelor's degree
Men
Women
The link between degrees and careers
The link between degrees and careers

With the following "sankey" diagram, you can follow the top ten bachelor's degrees held by people working as speech-language pathologists, and then, in turn, you can see the 10 occupations that hire the most of each degree's graduates. This visualization links fields of studies and careers, suggesting both similar careers and options for degrees. The full list of bachelor's degrees held by speech-language pathologists given in the previous section reminds us that there are many paths to these careers beyond what we can summarize here.

This job
Top 10 majors
Each major's top ten jobs
Speech-language pathologistsElementary and middle school teachersAudiologistsPhysicians and surgeonsEducation administratorsSpecial Education TeachersPostsecondary teachersRegistered nursesTherapists (specialized areas)Medical and health services managersCounselorsSocial workersPsychologistsManagers (specialized areas)Lawyers, judges, and magistratesHuman resources workersMarketing and sales managersWholesale and manufacturing sales representativesCustomer service representativesSecretaries and administrative assistantsFirst-line supervisors of retail sales workersRetail salespersonsSecondary school teachersPreschool and kindergarten teachersTeachers and instructors (specialized areas)EditorsWriters and authorsNurse PractitionersNursing, psychiatric, and home health aidesNurse anesthetistsDentistsPhysical scientists (specialized areas)Epidemiologists and Medical/Life ScientistsClinical laboratory technologists and techniciansPharmacistsTeacher assistantsEducation, training, and library workers (specialized areas)Accountants and auditorsChief executives and legislatorsFinancial managersFirst-line supervisors of non-retail sales workersCommunication DisordersSciences and ServicesPsychologyCommunicationsGeneral EducationEnglish Language andLiteratureNursingBiologyElementary EducationSpecial Needs EducationGeneral BusinessAll other degrees
Switching Careers
Most common new jobs
The most common next careers for speech-language pathologists

What jobs will most speech-language pathologists hold next year?

The data in this chart comes from person interviews for the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The survey interviews households eight times over a two-year period, allowing us a glimpse into how people move from job to job. You can see more details from the results of the survey in our last tab in this section, and you can read about our methodology in our source descriptions.

Here we see all of the jobs that at least 1% of speech-language pathologists reported holding in their second year's survey. Is your future job on this list? For speech-language pathologists, there isn't a lot of action in this chart! This isn't a career that invites much moving around.

Speech-language pathologistsElementary and middle school teachersSecondary school teachersMedical and health services managers
Lateral career moves
Lateral job transitions for speech-language pathologists

A lateral career transition is a move to a job with similar pay and responsibilities. A move to such a job can offer a change of pace without an increase in stress or a decrease in pay. The following table simply identifies the one job which was held by at least 1% of survey respondents before working as speech-language pathologists as well as 1% of respondents after working as speech-language pathologists. Select a row to investigate the job's full description and determine if it truly offers an opportunity for a lateral transition.

Lateral-move careers for speech-language pathologists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Elementary and middle school teachers
164,300
$0$200K$51K
Full prior and next career listings
Prior and next careers for speech-language pathologists: full listings

What do people typically do before and after they work as speech-language pathologists? Here are the full lists of all jobs that at least 1% of speech-language pathologists surveyed reported as holding a year earlier or later.

Choose which type of transition to view
Prior jobs
Next jobs
Prior careers for speech-language pathologists
Annual openings
How many openings are expected each year?
Salary
Salary distribution for people in this occupation. Range is 0-$200,000.
Median
Middle 50%
Middle 80%
Education
High School
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Master's Degree
Doctorate
Gender
Men
Women
Percentage Transitioning
What percentage worked in this job the previous year?
Elementary and middle school teachers
164,300
$0$200K$51K
3.4%
Speech-language pathologists
10,500
$0$200K$62K
76.5%
Therapists (specialized areas)
3,000
$0$200K$47K
1.3%
No occupation
9.7%
Read about speech-language pathologists
Responsibilities and activities
Responsibilities and activities

Speech-language pathologists typically do the following:

  • Evaluate  levels of speech, language, or swallowing difficulty
  • Identify treatment options
  • Create and carry out an individualized treatment plan that addresses  specific functional needs
  • Teach children and adults how to make sounds and improve their voices and maintain fluency
  • Help individuals improve vocabulary and sentence structure used in oral and written language
  • Work with children and adults to develop and strengthen the muscles used to swallow
  • Counsel individuals and families on how to cope with communication and swallowing disorders

 

Speech-language pathologists work with children and adults who have problems with speech and language, including related cognitive or social communication problems. They may be unable to speak at all, or they may speak with difficulty or have rhythm and fluency problems, such as stuttering. Speech-language pathologists may work with people who are unable to understand language or with those who have voice disorders, such as inappropriate pitch or a harsh voice.

Speech-language pathologists also must complete administrative tasks, including keeping accurate records and documenting billing information. They record their initial evaluations and diagnoses, track treatment progress, and note any changes in a individual’s condition or treatment plan.

Some speech-language pathologists specialize in working with specific age groups, such as children or the elderly. Others focus on treatment programs for specific communication or swallowing problems, such as those resulting from strokes, trauma, or a cleft palate.

In medical facilities, speech-language pathologists work with physicians and surgeons, social workers, psychologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and other healthcare workers. In schools, they evaluate students for speech and language disorders and work with teachers, other school personnel, and parents to develop and carry out individual or group programs, provide counseling, and support classroom activities. For more information on teachers, see the profiles on preschool teachers, kindergarten and elementary school teachers, middle school teachers, high school teachers, and special education teachers.

Personality and skills
Personality and skills

Can you see yourself in the ranks of speech-language pathologists? Here are the skills and traits that could lead to success.

Analytical skills
Speech-language pathologists must select the most appropriate diagnostic tools and analyze results to arrive at an accurate diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Communication skills
Speech-language pathologists need to communicate test results, diagnoses, and proposed treatments in a way that individuals and their families can understand.
Compassion
Speech-language pathologists work with people who are often frustrated by their difficulties. Speech-language pathologists must support emotionally demanding individuals and their families.
Critical-thinking skills
Speech-language pathologists must adjust their treatment plans as needed, finding alternative ways to help.
Detail oriented
Speech-language pathologists must take detailed notes on progress and treatment.
Listening skills
Speech-language pathologists must listen to symptoms and concerns to decide on the appropriate course of treatment.
Trends in employment
Salary trends
Distribution and trends: Salaries for speech-language pathologists
Choose actual dollars or inflation-adjusted dollars to view
Adjusted for inflation
Historic dollars

In 2018, the median (middle) salary for speech-language pathologists was higher than 83% of all other jobs' middle salaries. This graphic shows how the salary distribution (adjusted for inflation) has changed for this job over recent years. The gray line, as a comparison, shows the median salary of all US workers.

This job's median $78KAll jobs' median $39K$69K$38K200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018$0$50K$100K$150K
Projected versus actual employment
Exploring actual employment trends versus projected trends

Currently, jobs for speech-language pathologists are anticipated to grow by 18% over the next decade; only 8% of jobs are predicted to grow more.

The projected employment for speech-language pathologists is the best guess created by talented economists and statisticians at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, as you look through several careers you'll notice that the projections are heavily influenced by past performance and may miss current trends. No one can tell the future, and as new information and better techniques are developed, actual counts and future projections may change. Here's a glimpse at the actual counts versus the projections over time.

2000201020202030050,000100,000150,000200,000
Employment counts
Actual measured employment
BLS 10-year predictions
Variation by state
Employment
State-by-state employment numbers

Some careers tend to be centered in specific parts of the country. For example, most jobs in fashion are in New York or California. Let's see if your dream job is easy to find in your dream location! We have a few choices for viewing the data that can help you get a full employment picture.

Job density versus job count

Which states hire the most speech-language pathologists? We wonder if that's a fair question since states come in all sizes, so instead let's start with the question of which states have the highest density of people working as speech-language pathologists. You can choose to view the number of jobs per state if you prefer.

BLS vs ACS data

This map defaults to employment information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which provides job totals carefully compiled for accuracy and with a primary focus on how employers describe their workers. The BLS job totals do not count self-employed workers. We've also compiled totals using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) which are based on how workers describe themselves. Sometimes ACS results are quite a bit different from the employer-based BLS data.

Choose the metric to review
Jobs per 1000 working
Number of jobs
Use this data source
BLS
Number of Speech-Language Pathologists per 1,000 workers (BLS)
Select a state to see local area details
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0.00.51.01.52.0
Salary
Salaries by state
Let's get a feel for where speech-language pathologists earn the highest salaries. There are several choices for which data we consider and how we view that data, and each can lead to different conclusions, so please read on...
Median salary versus state ratio

We use two methods to compare salaries across states:

  • In-state comparisons: the ratio of median (middle) salaries for speech-language pathologists compared to the median salary for all people working in each state, or
  • Median salary: the unaltered median salaries for speech-language pathologists.

We hope the ratio allows perspective about how salaries may compare to the regional cost-of-living.

BLS vs ACS data

We have two sources for statewide salary information with important distinctions. The BLS data is created by surveying companies, missing individuals who are self-employed or work for smaller companies. The ACS data is compiled from multi-faceted household surveys and may reflect the inconsistencies that people may have in reporting information.

Choose the metric to review
In-state comparisions
Median salary
Use this data source
BLS
Median salary ratio: Speech-Language Pathologists to all workers (BLS)
The darkest shading corresponds to states in which speech-language pathologists earn the highest salary when compared to other jobs in the state. We think this ratio might be a better indicator than the actual salary for your buying power as a state resident.
Select a state to see local area details
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0.00.51.01.52.02.5
Compare to similar jobs

If this job interests you, then use the dots below to find other jobs you might like. The dots closer to the top represent jobs that are like Speech-language pathologists (shown with a blue star). Look for the dots to the right to find the best salaries! (We pulled salary data from BLS, and they give a top salary value of just over $200K to protect privacy, so our graph would go much higher if the salaries were not top coded.)

How should the career similarity be computed

There are a number of ways to measure the similarity of jobs, here are a few we provide:

  • Interests: Also known as a Holland Code - Are you a thinker? A helper? What fits your personality?
  • Environment: Are there hazards? Will you be comfortable? Will it be stressful?
  • Knowledge: What do you need to know the most about?
  • Physical Abilities: Do you need to especially strong or coordinated?
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